Topshop is a British clothes retailer with stores in over 20 countries and online operations in some of its markets. Topshop’s sales primarily come from women’s clothing and fashion accessories. It is part of the Arcadia Group, which owns a number of other retail outlets including Burton, Dorothy Perkins and Miss Selfridge. The chain was founded in 1964 as Peter Robinson’s Top Shop, a young fashion brand within the Sheffield branch of the Peter Robinson Ltd ladies fashion store chain (former department store chain). The first standalone Topshop store was opened in 1974. In 1978, Topman was created as a spin-off brand to cater for male customer and is now run as a separate chain, although some stores are co-located. The Gap, Inc. is an American clothing and accessories retailer based in San Francisco, California. A specialty retailer offering clothing, accessories and personal care products for men, women, children and babies. With more than 134,000 employees and about 3,100 company-owned stores and 175 franchise stores, our presence is felt around the world The company has five primary brands: the namesake Gap banner, Banana Republic, Old Navy, and Athleta. As of September 20010, Gap, Inc. has approximately 135,000 employees and operates 3,076 stores worldwide. Gap Inc., seek to make lasting, positive impressions on the people and communities where the company operate Next. is a British retailer marketing clothing, footwear, accessories and home products.
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The company has over 550 stores throughout the UK and the Republic of Ireland, and 50 franchise branches in Europe, Asia and the Middle East. It is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. Next has three main outlets: Next Retail, a chain of 500+ retail stores in the United Kingdom and Eire; Next Directory, a home shopping catalogue and Website with more than 2 million active customers, and Next International, with 180+ international stores. Zara is a Spanish clothing and accessories retailer based in Galicia. It is the flagship chain store of the Inditex group; the fashion group also owns brands such as Massimo Dutti, Pull and Bear, Stradivarius and Bershka. It is claimed that Zara needs just two weeks to develop a new product and get it to stores, compared with a six-month industry average, and launches around 10,000 new designs each year. Zara was described by Louis Vuitton fashion director Daniel Piette as “possibly the most innovative and devastating retailer in the world.” Zara has also been described as a “Spanish success story” by CNN. As of 2011 Zara stores have men’s clothing and women’s clothing, each of these subdivided in Lower Garment, Upper Garment, Shoes, Cosmetics and Complements, as well as children’s clothing (Zara Kids). The Environmental Protection Act 1990 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that as of 2008[update] defines, within England and Wales and Scotland, the fundamental structure and authority for waste management and control of emissions into the environment.
Duty of Care
Every store has to waste properly and prevent it from harming the environment and also ensure that all waste collected from the stores is transferred to an ‘authorised person’ such as the local council or a waste contractor.
Packaging waste regulations
These apply to larger stores and require them to recover and recycle a certain percentage of their packaging waste. The regulations currently apply to companies with an annual turnover of over 2 million and which handle more than 50 tonnes/year of obligated packaging.
The Government imposes a tax on all waste sent to landfill. This tax is designed to penalise the excessive use of landfills and to encourage businesses to reduce and recycle waste. This is one of the reasons why the cost of trade waste collections has gone up and will continue to increase.
Topshop COMMITMENT TO THE ENVIRONMENT:
- Reducing impact on the environment and Endeavour to limit consumption of valuable resources.
- constantly developing ways to increase efficiency and reduce energy consumption in company’s operations.
- Reducing packaging
Gap,inc. COMMITMENT TO THE ENVIRONMENT:
- the product groups who seek sustainable design solutions.
- store managers who conserve energy and reduce waste.
- the denim laundries that meet high wastewater standards.
Next. COMMITMENT TO THE ENVIRONMENT:
- improve energy efficiency and reduce energy use.
- minimise waste produced and increase the quantity recycled.
- increase the efficiency of our delivery fleet.
Zara COMMITMENT TO THE ENVIRONMENT:
- to develop in-store sustainability and energy efficiency standards.
- to install sources of renewable energy, such as wind energy, solar photo-thermal and photovoltaic solar energy, at the company’s distribution hubs and reduce energy use to a minimum.
- to create, in as-yet-to-be-determined locations, the forest biomass needed to absorb 100% of the greenhouse gas emissions generated by the use of electricity at Zara headquarters.
Inditex has just opened its 5000th Inditex store as the flagship of its 2011-2015 Sustainable Inditex Plan. Inditex new global benchmark in eco- efficiency is housed in the Palazzo Bocconi (Rome), a building whose history dates back more than 120 years. Just some figures: this is a store which consumes 30% less energy with regard to the annual average consumption of a conventional store, saves 50% of water consumption and avoids the emission of over 150 toms of CO2 per year. The Inditex’s Strategic Environmental Plan 2007-2010 achieved various certifications in 3 of its stores including a first of its kind in Europe with Zara Barcelona being awarded LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) certification. This new concept of boutique hides behind a façade that makes use of three key elements:
- shop windows and geometric composition with big metal and glass squares, and a large-format logo. The new-look shop interior comprises an extensive range of grey tones which contrast with its black furnishings. The sales area is spread over five stores.
- Highlights of features contributing to the store’s eco-efficiency include automatic monitoring of the store’s indoor air quality (CO2 levels, humidity, light intensity, noise), to ensure the comfort of employees and shoppers;
- motion detectors to turn lights on and off in low-traffic areas and a an air curtain system at entrance doors, equipped with special sensors that continuously monitor outside temperatures to prevent abrupt indoor air temperature changes, thereby reducing the need to run heating/cooling systems. Besides and in order to lessen the nocturnal light pollution which plagues cities, the establishment’s lights are programmed to dim by more than 50% when the shop is closed
Companies of the dimensions of H&M can have a big impact on the environment, it’s a responsibility of H&M to reduce his impact. By our research the company has to minimize his impact at every stage of the products’ life cycle from how cotton is grown to the way the customer use the garments. The first major advantage of working with secondary data is economy: because someone else has already collected the data, the researcher does not have to devote resources to this phase of research. There is also a savings of time. Because the data are already collected, and frequently also cleaned and stored in electronic format, we can spend the our time analyzing the data. The second major advantage of using secondary data is the breadth of data available. Few individual researchers would have the resources to collect data from a representative sample of adults in every state in the United States, let alone repeat this data collection process every year, but the federal government conducts numerous surveys on that scale. Data collected on a national basis are particularly important in environmental issues. The third advantage in using secondary data is that often the data collection process is informed by expertise and professionalism that may not available to smaller research projects. For instance, many of the Government environmental surveys discussed in this research use a complex sample design and system of weighting that allows the researcher to compute population based estimates of health conditions and behaviors. One major disadvantage to using secondary data is inherent in its nature: because the data were not collected to answer your specific research questions, particular information that you would like to have may not have been collected, or it may not have been collected in the geographic region you want to study. In any case, you can only work with the data that exist, not what you wish had been collected. A second major disadvantage of using secondary data is that because the analyst did not participate in the planning and execution of the data collection process, he or she does not know exactly how it was done. More to the point, the analyst does not know how well it was done and therefore how seriously the data are affected by problems such as low response rate or respondent misunderstanding of specific survey questions. Sometimes it is readily available; for instance, many of the government data sets have extensive documentation of their data collection procedures, refusal rates, and other technical information available on their websites or in published reports.
Secondary Data is existing information that has been gathered for some purpose outside the planning process. Obtaining Secondary Data in practice normally means ‘desk’ or ‘library’ research. Information can be obtained from the data that is routinely collected by the planning organisation or from external sources. External data are gathered by other organisations either for their own use or for commercial use. General sources of external data are, for instance, various computerised databases, associations, other government agencies and different published sources such as libraries and newspapers. A computerised database can provide information on a wide range of topics, and lists of commercial databases are normally available in public libraries. Librarians can also be invaluable in the search for specific information for planning. Among the potentially useful data provided by government agencies are demographic data, employment data and special reports on industries. Other examples of secondary data are historical information and census data. Associations may have valuable information about conservation or social aspects. To estimate the relevance of information for the planning process it is essential to know how and why the information was produced. Burns and Bush (2000) claim that a researcher should examine five factors when evaluating a piece of secondary data. These are:
- The reason the study was undertaken. Sometimes a piece of research is not independent in nature but has been carried out to support a specific point of view. Obviously, an organization should try to avoid taking decisions based on information that has been produced as a result of a biased piece of research.
- The credibility of the organization or individuals who undertook the research.
- What specific information was collected and what method the researcher employed to measure or evaluate the data.
- How the data was collected. There are many different methods for collecting data, which will be discussed later in this chapter. Each method may have an affect on the quality of the findings of a piece of research.
- The consistency of the findings of a piece of research with other studies.
If several studies report similar results, that may provide support for the reliability of any findings. If a report contradicts a number of other studies it may be an indication that the research is not reliable. However, in both cases the researcher has to evaluate a specific piece of research across all criteria and not merely agree with or discount a report’s findings on the basis that it does not agree with the majority of the results from other secondary research sources. Secondary data can be obtained from a number of sources
BENEFITS OF SECONDARY DATA
The major advantages of using secondary data are:
It is much less expensive to obtain information from existing sources than to develop entirely new data. These existing sources may require a nominal charge for the information, but it will be much less than the cost of undertaking primary data collection.
Secondary data are available almost instantaneously. A manager can have access to data very quickly and therefore does not have to wait weeks or perhaps months for primary data to be collected, analyzed, and summarized. By using secondary data whenever possible, a manager avoids the frustration of developing the research methodology design, designing the data collection instrument, pretesting the instrument, devising a sampling plan, gathering the data, checking all data for accuracy and omissions, analyzing the data, and summarizing and reporting the results. Instead, a manager can merely locate the appropriate source and access the information desired. This process can be completed in a few hours or days, whereas primary data collection can take weeks or months to complete.
LIMITATIONS OF SECONDARY DATA
However, secondary data collection does have the following disadvantages.
A manager has no assurance that information gathered by others will be applicable to a particular hospitality operation. For example, information obtained in New York about the popularity of a specific menu item is not necessarily useful to a manager operating in another part of the country. Information that pertains to one operation may apply only to that operation and be of limited value to anyone else.
Information may be outdated.
Managers need current and accurate information on which to base decisions. All too often, secondary data are not as useful as they might be merely because they are not current. For example, the results of a consumer attitude survey conducted by a restaurant four years ago would be of limited value to a manager making plans today. During the four years, a number of changes in consumer attitudes are likely to have taken place. These changes in attitudes will make the original data outdated and useful only in a historical sense. If a hospitality manager makes use of less-than-timely data, the results are likely to be less than satisfactory.
Whenever a hospitality operator uses secondary data as the basis for a decision, the manager runs the risk that the information may not be reliable and accurate. A manager would do well to determine who collected the data and what method of data collection was used. Information is only as good as the individuals who collect it and the methods they use. If a study is administered in a haphazard manner, the results and conclusions should be viewed with caution.
SOURCES OF SECONDARY DATA
There are two main types of secondary data that can be used by managers within a firm (see Figure 6.2). Internal data exist within the firm and can be obtained with minimal time and effort. Advances in computer technology have made it easier to obtain this information and provide it to managers in a form that is useful. External data are not readily available within the firm. Managers must obtain this data by spending more time and/or money contacting outside sources. The Internet has made this a much easier task, but there is still a fair amount of effort involved. The various sources of internal and external data are discussed below.
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The component of a marketing information system that is the simplest to design and implement is an internal system, or the component designed to collect data from within the organizational environment. When considering the organizational environment, management needs to be concerned only with information available from within the physical confines of the organization’s units, whether they are hotels or restaurants. This component of a marketing information system requires less time and money than does the competitive environment or externally generated marketing information. The internal component of a marketing information system is very valuable to management because it provides a wealth of information. Management has three main sources of internal marketing information: guest histories and sales data, employees and management staff, and customer feedback.
Employees and management staff.
All too often, hospitality management ignores the wealth of information that is informally gathered by hourly employees such as front desk personnel, telephone operators, restaurant service people, and hosts and hostesses. These individuals are in constant contact with guests, yet they are rarely asked to relay customer comments and reactions to operational changes, such as new menu items or guest room décor changes. These employees represent an excellent source of information, although the information they provide may not be totally objective. It is a good idea for management to meet with employees on a regular basis to discuss problems and opportunities. Employees crave recognition from their supervisors; this recognition increases the employee’s satisfaction and commitment to the organization. All employees need to be exposed to some motivational techniques, although managers often ignore the simple and basic needs of employees as individuals.
The focus of the marketing concept is the hospitality operation’s clientele. All aspects of the entire operation should be aimed at satisfying these individuals. The purpose of using an internal marketing information system is to solicit opinions and comments from the current clientele. This can be done in a number of ways, such as having the manager talk with a few of the customers or having service personnel check with the customers. One method used frequently is the comment card. These cards are placed in guest rooms or are provided to the guest upon checkout or when they have finished a meal in a restaurant. The purpose is to solicit their opinions and comments concerning the operation’s quality. All three internal sources of marketing information are very valuable. Together they can provide a great deal of useful information with which to make decisions. Historically, hospitality managers have failed to use these sources to maximal advantage, but the current competitive situation in the hospitality industry dictates that all sources of information be used to gain a competitive advantage and to earn maximal financial rewards
Although externally generated marketing information is extremely valuable, it is normally not collected on a daily basis, as is the case with internally generated marketing information. This is due to a much larger investment of time, money, and other scarce resources required for externally generated information. Management should consider using a wide variety of sources of external marketing information. Literally thousands of sources are available, and these sources are limited only by management’s own efforts to locate them. A few typical sources of external marketing information are:
Many industries form trade groups that provide data for their members. These trade associations collect information from their members and then provide industry averages that can be used to measure a firm’s relative performance. Some of the popular trade associations for the hospitality industry are the National Restaurant Association, the American Hotel & Lodging Association, and the Hospitality Sales and Marketing Association International. Two of the more popular tourism associations are the World Tourism Organization (WTO) and the Travel and Tourism Research Association (TTRA). However, most of the data for the tourism industry are collected by government travel bureaus.
Cities, states, and countries usually form organizations that are responsible for promoting travel to the area. Most cities have a chamber of commerce that is responsible for promoting business in the city and, in some cases, tourism as well. Larger cities and regions form convention and visitors bureaus for the sole purpose of promoting business and leisure travel to the region. A chamber of commerce has member firms from all types of industries, whereas convention and visitors bureaus tend to have member firms from travel-related industries such as lodging, restaurants, and tourist attractions. Finally, most states and countries have government travel and tourism bureaus that are responsible for promoting travel to that state or country.
Trade journals and periodicals.
Many industry, or trade, journals are available to firms. Trade associations often publish their own journals, but many other organizations publish periodicals covering certain industries. Some of the more popular hospitality publications are Restaurants & Institutions, Restaurant Hospitality, Nation’s Restaurant News, Restaurant Business, Lodging Hospitality, Lodging Magazine, and Hotel & Motel Management. The articles in these publications provide information on new products and advertising campaigns, as well as current trends in the industry. These articles also provide a valuable resource for case studies involving successes and failures of industry firms.
In addition to trade journals that specialize in a certain industry, other publications cover business in a variety of industries. Some of the more popular business publications that cover the hospitality and tourism industries are Business Week, Wall Street Journal, Fortune, Barron’s, and Forbes.
The growth in both the quantity and quality of information available on the Internet is well documented. Using one or more of the available Internet search engines will uncover information, some of which will be highly valuable for managers. A key consideration for managers is being able to determine the accuracy and usefulness of information gathered from the Internet.
Universities and colleges have well-stocked libraries that can be a valuable resource for firms in the area. These institutions often have access to many of the other sources of external data. In addition, universities and colleges form centers to research specific areas such as hospitality. This information is often free to the public or available for a reasonable fee.
Local, state, and federal governments maintain detailed data on all aspects of the economy; the data are free or available for a nominal fee. The United States Census gathers detailed information about the population and retail business, and the Statistical Abstract of the United States contains similar information in abbreviated form. Census and statistical documents are now available in electronic form, enabling quicker searches and data retrieval. The federal government also collects information about foreign countries and provides specialists to answer specific questions and address inquiries.
Firms such as Harris and Gallup polls, Target Group Index, Nielsen, and W. R. Simmons specialize in collecting and distributing marketing information for a fee. These syndicated services provide information about consumer profiles and shopping behaviors, consumer responses to sales promotions and advertising, and consumer attitudes and preferences. This information is useful in focusing on market segments using aggregate data. These services often advertise in trade publications and marketing periodicals.
Guides, indexes, and directories.
Other valuable sources of external information include guides, indexes, and directories that are available at most university libraries and larger public libraries. Guides such as the Business Periodicals Index provide references by subject matter for articles
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