This research study tries to investigate the impact of advertising taglines on consumer in different cultural context. The appropriate reason for undertaking this study is discussed in introduction which suggests why there is a need to research in this area of marketing and communication. Moreover, this study also presents information on the subject of advertising taglines with regards to their impact on consumer and use of advertising taglines in culture differences like US and India. This study also uses the culture dimensions of Trompenaars and Hampden-Turners (1998) to examine the advertising taglines fitting in the specific and diffusive culture of both the countries.
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This study also attempt to provide the information of using brand application like advertising taglines to literature, as all the past research studies with regards to use of advertising taglines/slogans is undertaken in western countries ignoring the eastern countries. The only study done by (Jun and Lee, 2007) which consider one eastern country differentiating with western country in the line of brand designing and the use of corporate identity. Thus, this study attempts to fill the gap in the literature and provide more information to the past study in context with the use of advertising taglines in western and eastern countries.
Further, the research methodology uses different approaches of research methods and technique to find out how advertising taglines are inculcated in different culture and does creating impact on consumers.
1.1 The purpose of investigation
As per the past studies and looking towards current scenario, it is noted that the multi-national companies concentrate more on marketing strategies which has a global approach to market their product and services. A company does not become truly global by just moving their head quarters from one country to another but also by implementing global marketing strategies and delivering its marketing messages to their consumers (Muller, 2004). Hence, to deliver these marketing messages, the brand applications like advertising taglines, logo, corporate identity plays a very important role.
The advertising tagline, which is an important component of the brand, helps to create a long relationship between companies and consumers. Past studies have shown that the perspective of research on advertising taglines is related to brand design. Therefore, it is recommended that the future research on advertising taglines can be undertaken with regards to advertising campaigns and its commercial size in advertising (Jun and Lee, 2007). In the fierce market competition, enterprises often use unique promotional advertising taglines for their products and services in the cultural context as they need to reach their targeted segment. Hence, advertising taglines may become a symbolic sign of the company to achieve the brand as an intangible value.
Advertising taglines are widely used for promoting the product and services of the company. Companies also use advertising taglines for transmitting their philosophy of business and advertise their product and brand identity. Advertising taglines helps to create a long lasting impression to attract the customer attention by projecting deep impression on consumers mind. Hence, the advertising taglines should be short and lucid therefore the companies advertising taglines competently.
In the course of the years the diligent market wide and promotional publicity, made few memorable taglines which are still famous and recognized by the consumers. The advertising taglines like Nike “Just do it”, De Beers “Diamonds are forever” and Adidas “Impossible is nothing” are still fresh in the consumers mind and it is widely used by the companies to promote their product and services.
The earlier studies in last 30 years, the researcher’s have researched about advertising taglines in line with the area of marketing and communication. A numbers of studies (see Miller and Camey, Dimofte and Yalche, 2007; Rosengren and Dahlen, 2006; Dahlen and Rosengren, 2005; Supphellen and Nygaardsvik, Bradley and Meeds, 2002; Dotson and Hyatt, 2000; Pryor and Brodie, 1998; Dowling and Kabnofff, 1996, Mathur and Mathur, 1995) in the past, were carried out with regards to the effectiveness of advertising taglines in Brands.
Culture differences may be the initial hurdle for multinational companies to develop their product and services which are internationally accepted and can communicate with global consumers. These obstacles are even more in the developing countries which consists variety of traditional societies. Hence, to overcome these cultural differences there is a need to better understand the values of different cultures as it is important to explain the similarities and dissimilarities of the culture existing in different country and culture.
The study conducted by Jun and Lee in (2007) concentrate more on brand designing and how corporate identity exists and plays an important role in cross culture context. As Jun and Lee (2007) conducted this study with regards to one eastern country i.e. Korea and compared it with western country does not provide enough information in this area of marketing and communication. The authors also included new dimensions of Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner to test and support his hypothesis regards to the appeal of brand applications like corporate identity, logo, and taglines. Thus, taking into account the limitations of the past studies and taking the study of Jun and Lee (2007) as benchmark, the present study concentrate only on advertising taglines creating impact on consumers and its appeal in cross culture conditions which will help to provide more authentic information to international marketers in this area of research.
Besides, the present study uses popular advertising taglines of brands from the two countries that is to say, India and the United States to examine its appeal and effectiveness on consumer’s towards brands across culture. Both countries are appropriate towards current research study as the United States possess specific culture than India which represents diffusive culture (Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner, 1998). Moreover, past studies undertaken suggest that there is huge difference in the culture existing between the United States and India (Hofstede, on 1980, on 1991; the Foyer, on 1989).
As a result, these cultural aspects are proper to assess likeness and improbability of advertising taglines used by multinational companies in United States and India. Particularly, this study tries to compare the appeal and use of Advertising taglines in India and the United States.
1.2 Research Objectives
Therefore, the primary research objectives of this study are as follows:
To explore the impact of advertising taglines on consumer towards brands
To what extent culture dimension(Specific versus Diffusive) of Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner (1998) is applicable with variances in communication practices like Advertising taglines;
To investigate the appealing nature of advertising taglines across culture.
The limitations of the studies are as follows:
The first limitation is regarding the number of cases studies to be considered in future research as this present study only considers two case studies of popular brand currently existing in both the countries.
The second limitation is regards to the number of countries undertaken are only limited to one country from each country i.e. US and India. Hence, further research should increase the number of countries from different culture.
The third limitation is pertaining to the sample size of advertising taglines taken from each country for the present study is limited, so it is recommended that the number of sample size to be increased for making content analysis easy by using computer aided software for more appropriate results.
2.0 Literature Review
2.1.1 Definition of advertising tagline
A tagline ‘is an expression that is used for quick help to establish an image, identity, or position for an organization to increase the memorability’ (O’Guinn, and all Semenik, 2003, p. 428) . A motto of advertising is something that is written to the memory of consumers and the potential to evoke memory, often repeated to promote memory recall (Wells, Burnett and Moriarty, 1989), and support consumers in terms of a recall particular brand of the patron when they meet with all options (remember stake) (Katz and climbed 1969).
This may be surprising or unexpected and can be used parallel building, alliteration, rhyme, or rhythm (Moriarty, Burnett and Wells, 1989). It can turn a potentially negative into a positive image, and can have the function to create and retain clear images, connecting the product to intangible assets and focusing on aspects other than the realization of the product (Forbes, 1987). In branding literature, a tagline is normally identified with the core of its overall objective: “tagline are expressions that convey the message brief and vivid and convincing to a mark” (Supphellen Nygaardsvik and, in 2002, p 386).
2.1.2 Exploring previous studies on advertising taglines
The aim is to provide a clear overview of previous studies of advertising slogans and to reach the, the majority of the articles published over the past two decades in the consumer – Studies based advertising slogans attached (see appendix Table 2.1). It is generally believed that the Union is quite rich for a broad picture of what was discussed in research and advertising slogans that the sampling methods used, the methods of applied research and conclusions of research.
A lot of studies related to the effects of advertising taglines examined leading dignitaries. Memory and recognition are two key elements of memorability commonly used to assess notability leaders. A stream of research focused with regards to advertising taglines on consumers ‘ability’ to remember advertising slogans, or was interested in making advertising slogans memorable. For example (Dotson and Hyatt, 2000) stated that by the age of ten, children are aware of both the advertising taglines, like their parents. (Yalch, 1991) noted that it was easier for people to remember advertising taglines, when incorporated with jingle, a song or a melody.
Similarly, Reece and Li Bergh (1994) found the expression of linguistic devices (quantity and type of characters), followed by slogans employed in better detection rate was well designed and branded to remember that the use of television was a significantly attached to the memory. On it, the age, significantly related to memory with young adults and the ability to better memory than that of older adults. Moreover, men have the memory capacity compared to the best of women.
Furthermore, the correlation between complicacy advertising taglines and memory was examined. For example, (Bradley and Meeds, 2002) showed that the versions of simple syntax in favour of detection. The advertising slogan with the syntactic problem of transition has a very positive influence on the memory of morphemic free and attitudes towards advertising. Another current research examined the effects of the Tagline ‘ignition’.
2.1.3 The importance of advertising taglines
It is understood that one of the factors affecting brand awareness is important because the most valuable brand assets of the company. Each year, the global brand consulting firm Interbrand’s global Brand, generates weekly business reports which estimates the brand equity of the brands. The best brands around the world, estimated at tens of millions of dollars, and seriously do a major focus of enterprise management (Brady et.al, 2004 years and cheranjeev, 2007 years). Meanwhile, the dollar’s brand value is generally based on their ability to generate economic benefits.
Brand is a high return on capital, and will in a competitive market conditions are not expected net profit divided. Brand equity is customer feedback and market knowledge of marketing, and its different effects. Therefore, the stock of differentiation is the core of the brand. If there is no differentiation, brand premium will not to acquire or make economic profits. In some cases, it easily lead to differences (eg, automobiles, breakfast cereals), while in other cases, it can be more challenging (such as gasoline, bottled water). In any case, the client should have sufficient brand Knowledge, forming a difference between brands. The two main factors affecting brand image is the brand awareness and knowledge of the brand.
Mostly, brand Recall and brand Recognition are the general tip of the brand awareness. Recall of the brand is the consumers or the talent of the defendant to recall without any help of the brand. On the other hand, brand awareness is the auxiliary memory to identify a lighter task which is the ability of the defendant, from a list made available by the brand.
Brand image normally values the type and strength of the union of the brand examining. It can be seen in the role to advertise taglines and other applications of the brand identity, brand awareness and brand image should increase and concern the row after knowledge of the brand. The practical implication of advertising tagline is a good study to check the market value of the society as results if they announce the change in tagline from brands.
Research conducted by Mathur and Mathur (1995), established that the market value increase when there is a change of tagline. The authors concluded that in this growth phase, when the company announced to change the tagline only after considering and carefully taking into account their marketing and advertising strategies and develop fanying positive factors such as changes in demographics, consumer preference for new taglines and competitive environment.
For instance, the change in tagline of Campbell Soup from ‘M’m! M’m! Good’ to ‘Do not underestimate the power of soup’, gained extensive media coverage, as company tried to make soup more applicable to everyday life. Although it is not guaranteed that the change in the advertising tagline may or may not increase the company’s market value, but it believes that as the intention of marketing department is clear, it is enough to influence and create a media buzz.
For example, the change in the tagline of Campbell soup from the “M’m ! M’m! Good” to “Do not underestimate the power of soup,” received extensive media coverage, and was trying to make soup more applicable to daily life. While it is not assured that long lasting impact of change in tagline may or may not increase the market value of company, but it consider as a clear intentions of the marketing department, enough to influence by creating a media buzz.
(Figure 2 .1 the slogan-brand equity linkage, adopted from Aker (1991))
2.2 Cross Cultural studies US and India
According to Hofstede (1980), the United States are found at the end point and India is in the middle of the individualism scale. Among 53 countries, the United States ranked 91with a high score, while India ranked 41with a low score (100) after the measure of the value put on the scale of individualism. Therefore, it is noted that advertisements used in the United States are the individualistic nature and advertisement in India is of collective nature (Cho et.al, 1999) and the consumers are persuaded in the application, appropriated to their cultural orientation in the country of origin (Han and Shavitt, on 1994).
In other words, the U.S. government has stressed the independence, autonomy, self-improvement, and personal rewards, and less likely to emphasize interdependence, family integrity, the Group’s objectives and concerns for others (Belk and Bryce, 1986; Muller, 1987; miracles., 1992). Earlier studies pointed out to the fact that the advertisement reflects that the value of the local culture is convincing more than those with the less persuading value of the culture. Therefore, the intercultural product advertising has been a main topic for the research in the field of the market communication.
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Nevertheless, there is less information available on the use of slogans in different cultures and how this impact on the creation of the creative mind of the consumer in connection with the brand they carry. Thus, this study is to understand the use of creative advertising slogan, and its appeal to the country of culture throughout the United States and India as providing more detailed information on marketing at the international level.
2.2.1 Trompenaars and Hampden -Turner (1998) Cultural dimensions
Preliminary study on the development of the brand and its appeal to the culture differences (June and Lee, 2007) was based on the amount of culture (Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner, 1998.2000). In the current differences and cultural dimensions of Trompenaars Hampden-Turner suggests that there is no single “best” way to organize cultural differences. To change a promising discussion of “globalization” and “localization” and to distinguish one culture to another culture, it is necessary to develop a culture of sizes. To meet these goals, the model in 5 sizes culture was proposed by Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner (1998), to understand cultural differences better in the business environment. Here are the dimensions of culture in relations with others, to attract.
In these cultural dimensions “specific” versus “Diffusive” were selected in previous study to understand the existence of brand designing in different culture (June and Lee, 2007). With this in mind, this present study also consider this aspect for the investigation, as dimensions are new compared with the culture dimensions of Hofstede (1980). These cultures dimensions also consider some parts of Hall’s dimensions (1993) and Hall and Hall (1987).
3.0 Research Methodology
There are several reasons to understand why philosophical issues are significant. Thorpe, Jackson and Easterby-Smith (2008) offered three reasons why the exploration of philosophy 109 can be essential, particularly in the research methodology:
It can help the researcher in defecating it and fact to identify the research of methods to be used in research, that is to say, to clarify general strategy for research.
It may help the researcher to be so innovative to select as creative or adaptation of research methods.
At an initial phase, the philosophical knowledge can help the researcher to acknowledge that designs will work and be not going to make, in the fact to assess different methods and fact to avoid inconvenient use of needless effort and fact to identify restrictions of approaches.
Research methods can be represented, considered and classified at different levels, including the most fundamental philosophical level. Difference between the quantitative research, which is normally linked to the philosophical traditions of positivism and qualitative research, has seen more frequently after philosophy – positivism usually are methodological differences more generally used (Polit, Becke and Hungler, 2001) . Denzin and Lincoln (1994) stated that the choice of method may depend on the perspective and study questions as being asked. The experience of the researcher, understanding of the philosophy and personal conviction can also affect the method chosen. On a philosophical level search method is based on correlation assumptions in its most common features of the world, covering aspects such as mind, the question, reality, reason, truth, the nature of knowledge and proof of knowledge ( Hughes, in 1994).
3.2 Qualitative Data and Quantitative Data
“Quantitative” data refers to all data, from simple accounts, such as frequency, to more complex data, such as test scores, price or” lease costs. (Saunders, 2009 Pg 414). It focuses on measuring the phenomenon. In order to collect quantitative data analysis techniques to help researchers analyze and interpret the useful data. Quantitative data is separated into two different categories, namely numerical data and categorical data. Categorical data represent the data, that its value cannot be measured but the number and class divided into groups according to characteristics can be described in the ranking variable (Brown and Saunders, 2008 ) Numerical data, also known as ‘quantitative’ represents the number of values calculated or measured values (Saunders, 2009).
“Qualitative” data refers to all non-digital data strategy that can be quantified and all products can be studied. It ranges from a small list for open-ended questions, such as transcripts or in-depth interview more complex data. Qualitative data analysis, consist of both inductive and deductive research methods and help researchers to determine the relationship between the different categories. Conversely, qualitative data is difficult to generalize the time and the final clauses, but not least, it is difficult to prove the results of the study as it may prove only study that shows relationship between the different variables.
Looking at the aspects, both qualitative and quantitative data, the researcher approached those quantitative data as a method of study because it was useful in understanding what is essential to be able to analyze data, and much to prove the relationship between different variables of the study.
3.3 Research Approach (Inductive v/s Deductive)
Saunders et al. (2000) suggest that this contradiction is the result of research on how the researcher plans to use the theory. Depending on the literature and as a researcher plans to use, the research can be inductive or deductive.
Deductive method of research approach consists of five stages of development (Robson, 2002) and they are as follows :-
Deductive method also around many parts of social reality and empirical study of philosophy to reflect the end of the physical and natural scientists create products to promote (saunders, 2009)
Inductive research, however, related to work with qualitative data and use multiple methods of data collection to collect light of different phenomena (saunders,2009)
Since it appears from the literature, that many studies have been conducted in the field of marketing and communications relating to the advertising taglines of the study enables a deeper understanding of advertising slogans in the cultural context of consumers, based on previous studies, he tries or disproves the hypothesis. Thus, this present study consists of inductive research approach.
3.4 Research design and Data collection
Based on previous discussion, the research objectives, the role of specific and diffuse culture dimension uses case studies and content analysis as an exploratory step to examine the dimension of the advertising taglines in the type of companies in India and U.S.
3.4. a Case Studies
There is no clear directive specifies the number of cases, including “examples of a proposed decision of the literature are often the case can be used. Rome (1989), said that in connection with a decision to select the number of case studies is on investigators. In addition, the proposed example can be added only in the “theoretical saturation ‘is reached, a selective unnecessary choice (Eisenhardt, 1989; Lincoln and Guba, 1985). In addition, the case may be the exact number of staff not represented guidance. Barton (1990) also believes that there is no such rules of qualitative sampling in the study (Patton, 1990 ). However, authors ignored as time and funding of research attention to the relevant practical difficulties faced by graduate students.
3.4. b Content Analysis
Although contents analysis is often especially used if the purpose of the research is to examine the message, the scientific system had to develop a Coding system which difficultly is to be reached. In this sense the study accepts the guidance of Kimberly (2002), analyzes the most reliable contents, and followed the hypothesis that the process of the contents analysis is a multistep-process which requires developing categories to encode from the contented thematic, coding training, the categories of the Data coding and the statistical analysis of coding data (Cho 1999).
In addition, guidance is taken to the contents analysis (Kimberly, 2002) as a demolition point to understand this method and to carry out the necessary steps. Kimberly (2002), finds out that the method of the contents analysis can be utilize to find out suitable results. The use of content analysis in subjects like marketing and communication, advertising, public relation, journalism, films, literature and other forms of business related study helps to verify the results and relates to generation, flow and impact of messages.
Supported on the description on top (Kimberly, in 2002) makes available approaches to the contents analysis, and they are:
Inferential content analysis
Psychometric content analysis
Predictive content analysis
The examples of 10 advertisements taglines are to be content analyze i.e. (the United States and India) the abovementioned approaches help in the fastening of the gap of problems seen in the previous research in line with ‘ less contents of information in the advertisement taglines ‘ (corporate identity), it is difficult to perform content analysis. The convenient sampling method is used to select the advertising taglines from each country.
In addition as the present study encloses around the ‘ advertisement taglines ‘ with individual brands of the societies instead of the corporate identity, the methods used overcomes the previous problems and helps to carry out the contents analysis in the lighter way which makes available to the row after more relevant and suitable results.
The springs of data for top brands first, were collected by the website; the top brands were generated from India and the United States. The Indian top brands were collected by the website Indian’s consumer super-brands (2009-10 and fortune 500 lists of top brands (2010) is made available from the websites of the US brands. Under these top brands 10 brands were selected from every land for contents analyses. Further the advertisement taglines of each brand are collected by the websites of their official society and were pulled from homepage to be more reliable.
However, there is most important lack of clarity connected in the web contents analysis with the question ‘ like is the term website means ‘ (McMillan, in 2000). The term was connected as a hierarchy of the information about Hypertext-links with an infinite number of other sides (Okazaki and Rivas, 2002). At the beginning one can limit their study up to house side of the side (James, in 1998; Jo and Jung, in 2005). Although home page offers much important information, like it normally consists of icons, symbols, proficient companies signs, clue and taglines of the society and products in product service categories, the connection with other level of the information is. The other author states that the house side contains web-founded communication because it accepts a role which is more than the headings of the society or other information in consideration for the traditional advertisement (Hwang et al., 2003).
In addition, two case studies are also collected as secondary data from each country to understand the effectiveness, of advertising taglines on the consumer’s. Case studies are connected to exceed brand which exists at the moment in both the countries as well as doing consistently good for a decade. Brand, therefore, the two case studies of Coca Cola are selected for the present study to understand, like Coca Cola as a use of the brand advertising taglines, and how does their advertisement taglines really influence on consumer.
In the narrow sense were the key purposes of the research investigate and describe whether the advertisement taglines acts and used for the advertisement purpose, creates an impact e on consumer and for investigating of the creative appeal of taglines in the different culture. The present study helps to understand how advertisement taglines plays vital role in delivering the company core messages to the consumer and thus, trying to affect the perception of consumer to be loyal to brands creating long relationship.
It is also identified in this study that the previous research was limited only to the corporate identity (June and lee, in 2007) for sketching the brand. This study gives more detailed information about the applications of the brand like the advertisement taglines, in the different connection of the culture with suitable results. Another conclusion can be reached is that the previous research was connected only with the cultural dimension of the western country which ignored the eastern culture , this study tries to close the gap in the literature and give more information in addition to the only research concerning the eastern country previously done by June and lee (2007).
In the future research it is recommended that the advertisement taglines/slogans should be studied in the connection by television advertisements. The future research should be consideration for the use of advertising taglines with regards to brands on television commercially, to its creative design, and its length in commercials. In addition, the research which applies the advertisement taglines or other marketing messages can be study in the respect with his creative sketching in the connection to cross cultural differences. This is recommended because many societies, market department having them investing millions in sketching the advertisement taglines and slogans through advertising agencies doing the research will be worth in this respect.
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