This research deals about the factors which makes an international advertisement to fail and the factors which influence the failure of these advertisements and key issues which are to be considered before marketing the products into an international market. the cultural factors which play a vital role in the demographics of the country and even factors such as colors which the advertisement implies are considered as important factor since it can be offensive in some countries especially in the middle-eastern countries. There are some factors like the food the people consume, for some countries it might be offensive and disgraceful to eat certain food products. This research deals about almost all the issues and constraints that a company has to face and adhered with, in order to create a successful international advertisement.
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In today’s dynamic business environment establishing and sustaining a business is a tedious job within itself and above all this, Venturing into an international market doesn’t make things any better because an international market means entering into an unknown territory. This is similar to entering into a jungle with a constant fear of the predators lurking around the corner trying to maul the prey. There are many constraints that we need to take in account before we enter into the market and one of the most important processes is the marketing of our products into the new market. One of the important ways of marketing is advertising. Advertising paves the way to reach the people of different cultures and ethnic groups.
Venturing into an international market and gaining a considerable amount of market share is favored by almost every organisation with respect to the scale of the business. So the main problems faced by any business is reaching out to people and giving them an insight about the products or services that the business has to offer. Here the main discussion about this research is about advertising globally. There are many sensitive areas which can affect the way of organisation advertises its product and or service. Most of the issues arise from the macro environment of the business. Some of the issues depend upon the geographical positioning of the business and the way it reaches the people with diverse cultural and political values. There are certain organisation which might be banking lot of money through their products and services in a particular country but fail in other countries due to the shift in overall process of maintaining a good communication and delivering the right message about the organizations values and ethics to the new venturing country.
Advertising in general can be of many types depending upon the media which the business organisation delivers the message to masses. Certain ways of communication between the people can impact more than conventional methods. For example, broadcasting an advertisement in a national television will impact more number of people than giving out tracts to the people in the street corners. So the way in which we express our views will impact the overall performance or in our case the sales of the products or services. Advertisement is the backbone of the business it creates a longing in people’s mind to buy the product. Each advertisement must be specific and must be aiming to capture not one but thousands of people so the objective of an international advertisement must be specific and clear so the audience will be able to grasp it loud and clear.
Types and modes of Advertisements:
There are different types and modes of advertisements available for a business to opt for. They can be:
Classified Advertising – Which are the simplest forms of advertisement, it uses simple texts and the cost is considerably low it can be implied in daily news papers and magazines. But with regard to reaching the masses this type of advert is not effective.
Display Advertising – It usually uses some images and logos of the organisation. And it is a little attractive than the classified but right word at the right places makes the difference. For example billboards and hoardings
Textual Advertising – The textual advertising is more of text oriented advert where words are more appropriate. For example advertisements received in the mobile phones through text messages. These are some of the types of advertisements.
There are different modes in which the advertisement can be implemented.
TV Commercials – one of the fastest ways to reach out to the people with the message about the products and or services of the organization. It can reach millions of people at any given time. But the cost issue rises. Nowadays for making advertisements organisation spend millions and millions of pounds. Example the Honda Accord commercial cost around $20 million. So the multi national organizations tend to spend such a huge amount of money into the advertising campaigns just to make a stand in the peoples mind.
Internet – The most effective way of reaching to the people especially to the younger audience. Nowadays people can’t imagine a world without computers and internet. So the business organizations tend to come up with innovative methods to reach out to the people by advertising on famous community websites with flashy banners with animations with online offers. If the audiences are convinced by the adverts then the advertisement will lead the potential customer straight into links where they can order the products right at the convenience of their homes.
Print Media – Posters, banners and classified ads in daily news papers, walls, etc. are almost found everywhere in the world these are easiest way of advertising methods but it cause lot of environmental issues. So often in the economically and technically inclined countries the companies tend to ignore these types of advertisements but not on whole.
Key Issues of International Advertising:
In the race for global conquest almost all the key players tend to achieve a solid ground in the market. The main issue in achieving this humongous goal is to capture the minds of the people in that particular country but victory doesn’t come that easy, because the cross cultural barriers makes the organisation to lose its stake in the global market. The way in which a product is marketed in the western world is not applicable to the middle-east and the eastern world.
Culture values are the most important and sensitive area of an international venture. If people get an offensive message about their way of living or culture through the marketing advert then it will cause a wild fire against the organisation and will lead to market decline of the product and or services which the business has to offer. So the cultural values of a country must be taken into serious consideration before entering into the advertising and marketing of the product.
For example, in the manufacturing of soaps and detergents some Western and European companies use pig fat which is considered to be an abomination by the Middle-eastern countries. So the products which are easily marketed to the Western world are unimaginably harder to market in the eastern world. And language barrier is a vital issue in the advertising process.
The language is the most important issue regarding marketing of a product. While advertising, people tend to translate the words literally without knowing the meaning of the words in the local or the venturing country’s language. In a similar example we can see that the English language is written from left to right but in the middle -eastern parts the languages such as Urdu is used to be written from right to left so the coordination of the writing also makes the impact on the product. So language is an important issue in international advertising
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Colours and Numbers:
In some cultures the colours are considered as important factor for example the colour green is considered as sacred and important color in the Muslim community and African tribal regions and in some countries like India, Japan and China the colour red is considered to be sacred and prosperous. Similarly the colour black is considered to be a bad luck and disgrace in Japan and India. In almost all of the hotels in the western nations like the USA, UK and the European nations room number 13 is omitted and replaced by either 12A or other similar letters and usually the hotels doesn’t have a 13th floor. For the Japanese people the number 4 and 9 are considered to be unlucky because of the way they are pronounced for the number 4 is pronounced as ‘Shi’ the meaning of which is same as death and the number 9 when pronounced ‘Ku’ gives the same meaning as torture or agony.
Dress codes and Nudity:
In some parts of the middle-east and Asian countries the dress codes are strictly adhered. If a western cosmetic country ventures into an middle-eastern country then the way they express or advertise their products must be different from the way they advertise in the western world because nudity and dress codes are not an issue in the western countries but it is considered to a be an offence and a disgrace for a women to be nude and improperly clothed in the middle-eastern countries. So this sensitive area must also be considered before venturing into other countries.
Solution for international advertisement issues:
From the available resources we can find the influential factors that play a vital role in the venturing of a business into an international market and the way they present their advertisements to bring in the customers. The easiest way to venturing into the international market with an appealing advert depends upon the ground work that has to be done. Depending upon the available information the business organisation can use tactical methods to bring in the customers.
The background research is one of the most dependable ways of acquiring information about the demographic data of a particular country. A specific group of samples must be taken for the research in our case the people group. The target group must be categorized into different age groups for our research and then Appling specific constraints like questionnaires and interviews to acquire the information about the wants and needs of the specific group of people.
Interviews and Questionnaires:
One of the easiest ways to accumulate the information about the characteristics and needs of the people and the way in which people think about a new international product that is to be introduced into the market. The questionnaire can consist of different questions depending upon the details that the business organisation needs.
The cultural issue must be taken into serious consideration because it can make a product sore high or get it down into the pits. If an organisation ventures into an middle-eastern country then it must take care of feminine issues because in the middle eastern countries women are considered to be less important than the male counterparts so focusing upon the products that are dependent upon women must be very sensitive and the dress code in some eastern countries are very important and sensitive. This is because the women in some middle-eastern and eastern countries used to wear a black cloth called ‘burkah’ which covers the whole body except the head in some cases. If a cosmetics or a fashion designer company ventures into these countries then the way in which they advertise must be very important. And last but not least the food consumption of specific country varies widely. In almost every Muslim country people used to consider eating of pork as an untouchable and disgraceful and all the meat that these people consume comes from specific places where they slaughter the animals with respect to their law. These types of meats are usually known as halal meats. If fast food joint ventures into these countries then the organisation when advertising in theses countries must specify that their meats are brought from halal meat suppliers and they are adhered to the laws. For example- McDonald’s fast food joints when venturing into middle-eastern country were caught in a situation that their products are not halal so they went in great deal of political pressure and the name of the company was at stake so they finally came up with a solution by making their products using halal meats.
The Coca-Cola Company spends more than $2.7 billion on its advertisement campaigns all around the world. There brand value is etched on every customer globally. Its wide range of products makes it a global leader in soft drink market.
The BMW Car Company has a considerable amount of money spent on their international ventures especially the advertisement department. The company has spent more than £91 million on advertisement compared to the sales of £6.3 billion in the previous years.
Innovation is the key strategy of SONY Corporation. The way in which they advertise their products is consider being expensive as well as creative. For their product – The Bravia television, the expenditure for the ad campaign was around $ 12 million.
The suggestion for international advertisement is that a through background study is to be considered before venturing into an international market and the cultural factors must be satisfied because it is the most influential. The advertising media must be specific for each target group and the message that we convey to the masses must be ethical and the organisation must be sensitive to the cultural values of the target people. A clear insight about the political, economical, social, cultural, environmental issues must be taken into consideration.
In conclusion the research outcome clearly states about the critical factors which are to be considered while creating a marketing campaign with a main factor – advertisement. International advertisements must be creative and the message that we share must abide with the cultural and political constraints of the country which the business is venturing into.
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