CHAPTER FOUR – CASE ANALYSIS
This chapter will give and comprehensively analyse the project report title ”The Nigerian consumer attitudes towards foreign and locally made clothing”. The relevant marketing framework which was discussed in chapter 3, with regards to the secondary data will be used. This includes reports, book, journals and articles written by experts. However, this secondary data will be used to accomplish the research objectives. The secondary sources which was used in chapter 3 consist of what experts has said about consumer behaviour, motivation, attitudes and the different aspects of their behaviour when purchasing products, in terms of their country of origin , and how it result into buying behaviour. Furthermore, we are going to look at the current situation of the Nigeria perception toward country of origin products and how it influence country of origin measurement.
The second aspect of this chapter will be dealing with the research instrument as questionnaire and primary research which will be to find out, if consumers have preference for foreign made clothes when compare to locally made once. Thus, the methodology will indicate the research objectives of the project and it also going to clarify data collection process, research hypothesis, respondent sampling and the limitation of the study.
The recover data will be examine using the statistical software SPSS followed by a thorough discussion of the findings.
4.2 NIGERIA PERCEPTION TOWARDS COUNTRY OF ORIGIN CLOTHING PRODUCTS
Due to recent studies which have been carried out, Nigeria consumer knowledge as been observed to have changes, consumer now prefer to purchase foreign made clothes rather than Nigerian locally made once this is as a result of the way country of origin different products have being manufactured. Furthermore, it was also to be clarified whether customer also prefer some certain product due to the states of the economic development of a country. For examples in the Nigeria at present, consumer don’t really patronize the locally made clothes only during local events such as marriages and traditional ceremonies. However, the foreign made products are always highly valued by Nigerian consumers due to exotic fashion trends always derived from the products.
According to Knight (1999) explain that in his writing that Nigerian consumer judge foreign products with high estimation due to the facts that they are products manufacture in other countries and he also went further to clarify that country of origin stage of industrial increase, the price of manufactured products and perceived the quality are numbers of reason for different consumer choice to choose between local and foreign products. Toyne (1989) also went further to explain in detail that due to certain products in developed countries, foreign consumer trends are preferred to those kind of products due to their level of advancement of technology and It has been originate that consumers in less developed countries assess locally made goods as inferior Al-Salacity (1998). Due to different research that has been carried out relating to country of origin, it is however been analyzed that these studies has a universal nature.
According to leonidou et al (1999) also clarified that there have been some related studies different carried out in some specific advance countries to assess country of origin effect on consumer evaluation of goods from diverse countries and computation patterns. It was also clarified by Han (1989) that consumer use country of origin information to evaluate products.
4.3 COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MEASUREMENT
This has been analyzed as the measuring of different countries products in other for consumer to know the growth and development of various countries products. Furthermore, in other for country of origin measurement is establish and there are three main approaches which will be evaluated and they consist of single cue studies, multi cue studies and conjoint(trade off) analysis .
4.3.1 SINGLE CUE STUDIES
According to Bilkey & Nes (1982) stated that most studies carried out are directed towards consumer being able to make analysis of the products based on merely country name. The author also went further in criticising single cue studies by clarifying that since they were bound to result in a significant origin effect on buying behaviour that might or not exist in the world. Thus, it observes that single cue studies afford no insights as to how the consumers combine country of origin information with other information such as brand name. Majority of the Nigeria consumer use this single cue to evaluate products especially to check different country of origin designer brands before making purchase.
From research show by Kaynak et al (2002) recently analyses that respondents evaluate product based on extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Examples are taste, price, service, design, durability and brand name. Majority of consumer have used single cue studies to analyze products evaluation, especially when they have small information about the brands in other to find out more information.
4.3.2 MULTI-CUE STUDIES
According to Ahmed et al (2002) established the fact that due to recent multi cue studies, this study now comprise of different intrinsic and extrinsic information cue other than the country of origin cue in moderating the country of origin effect. Bilkey & Nes (1982) also went further to establish the fact that showed either no significant or only minor effects due to country image.
Test which was carried out on using multi cue setting to test multi products indicated that country of origin is very necessary when evaluating product quality respective of the prices Wall et al (1991).
4.3.3 CONJOINT (TRADE OFF) ANALYSES
Since 1970 conjoint (trade off) analysis has been established and it can be define as the representation to understand the algebra of a concept or, more specifically how the components of a concept interacted to drive a rating such as to purchase intent (Johnson 1974 cited in Howard et al 2005). The initial application of conjoint analysis used off trade and off trade makes sense when viewed against the background. Examples colour, time factors, availability, and speed of reaction and together with additional factor that may be use to add value augmented part of the products. Additionally, it has been clarified that conjoint analysis take this principles and applies it in situation where there are more than one set of product choices. There will also be wider ranges of choice in prices than just high or low (Lan 2006: p. 187).
H0: Nigeria consumer purchase foreign made clothes due to status perceptions.
H1: Nigeria consumers do not purchase foreign made clothes due to status perceptions.
H0: For Nigerian consumers, checking the country of origin is dependent on what prompts their purchase of clothes
H2: For Nigerian consumers, checking the country of origin is not dependent on what prompts their purchase of clothes
4.4.2 RESEARCH APPROACHES
The research use for this project is called deductive research; the reason for this was that the research project encompasses consumer behaviour attitudes and hypotheses which will be experimented to discover if both results will be both identical or not. The deductive research helps the researcher to experiment the hypotheses in different stages in other to get the actual result of the hypotheses. Examples the Nigerian preference for foreign clothes as well as consumer behaviour.
According to Len (2007) justify that deductive begin with theory from which we may derive hypotheses. Which are than tested through observation. Furthermore, it was also clarify that the research is descriptive as it establish the fundamental relationship between variables (mark et al 2000).
4.4.3 RESPONDENT SAMPLING
A sample can be defined as a representative of the population which is carefully chosen to represent the whole population (Fink1995). The method of sample use for this survey was judgmental sampling which Mcdaniel (2004) defined as a form of convenient sampling in which the population elements are selected based on the judgment of the researcher. This was because it was convenient for the researcher to find respondents based on the judgment of where to find a large size of Nigerian male user of foreign and locally made clothing of various ages segment and who were willing to fill the questionnaire.
The respondents sample size for this project was 150 and the target group was between the ages of 18-51 years Nigerian males this is because when a large sample size increases, each unit of information is obtained at greater cost (Mcdaniel2004).
There are two types of sampling techniques that can be utilize in sampling methods and they includes, probability sampling and non- probability sampling. Probability sampling can be analysis as a chance or probability of each case being selected from the population is known and is usually equal for all cases. Non-probability samples are other than quota sampling is more frequently used for the case study research (Mark et al 2000:p. 152).
4. 5 DATA COLLECTION METHOD
4.5.1 PRIMARY DATA PROCESS
The primary data use for this research work was questionnaires this was to enable the researcher gain a standardized insight of country of origin preference, consumer attitude and different question were develop in other to understand consumer preference. Furthermore, this questionnaire comprises of 25question in three different areas. The first section encompasses demographical data which give an insight of respondent’s background, the second aspect was dealing with purchase preferences between foreign and locally made clothes and the third part was dealing with the consumer attitude towards various country of origin. Thus, the questionnaire are rated in different format the rating scale question are involves were by consumer are able to rate their different choice of brand preference, ranking was also used in the questionnaire to find out their order of important when buying clothes and finally multiple question was also giving with only one box to tick.
The total numbers of questionnaire administered were 150 and its was distributed to only Nigeria males in united kingdom to enable the researcher understand their preference for foreign and locally made clothes and it has been analysis that united kingdom has a large population of males that was while this research is specifying only Nigerian males
4.5.2 DISTRIBUTION PROCESS
As stated above the questionnaire were 150 and they are administer in different location of United Kingdom, some of this questionnaire where giving to respondent in London a populate place called Peckham which most Nigerian population reside. Furthermore some of the questionnaires were distributed to Nigerian male in Birmingham University; some were also distributed to Nigerians in Leicester and redeemed Christian church of God. Finally some of the questionnaires were also distributed through email to the Nigeria male consumer in United Kingdom.
Furthermore, questionnaire were distributed to 7 respondents for pilot testing but majority of the respondents had problems in filling out the questionnaire because there were some errors , examples includes question 6 were not stated how much they earn per annum and also question 9 did not give respondents the opportunity to choose their preference. Furthermore, the section two there were no rating scale question to enable respondents rate their order of preference and grammatical errors was also found. After taking the piloted questionnaire from respondent more question were integrated to explore different country of origin and some were removed.
4.5.3 SECONDARY DATA
Secondary data was unitizes in this project this was to enable the researcher gain an understanding about what the project is about and also to construct a strong basis which was used for the research work. According to Lewis et al (2007) explain secondary data as resources which are easily accessible by researcher in other to understand what the topic and also obtain vital information that will be used during the course of their research work. Examples of this secondary data includes marketing report, database, scholars reviewed, articles and consumer behaviour text books were used to get an insight about consumer attitudes and different country of origin.
McGivern(2006) also specified that secondary data sources analyses the formulation of the hypotheses and the interpretation of primary data.
4.5.4 SAMPLING STRATEGY
The sampling strategy used for this research work is non-probability the reason was that it provide a range of alternative techniques based on your subjective judgement. Thus, according Mark et al (2000) clarified that it provide sensible alternative to select cases to answer research questions and address the question. In pilot survey, non- probability samples may be the most practical, although it will not allow the extent of the problem to be determined.
4.5.5 RESEARCH LIMITATIONS
The main limitation of this research where gathering data from only Nigeria male it was not easy due to the fact that majority of the student were on vacation and some of them are busy with their jobs. Another limitation of this study was the issues of travelling to London and Birmingham on different occasion to distribute the questionnaires on getting there, some of the respondents were so busy that they could not fill the questionnaires. It was also observed that some of the Nigerian respondents at London felt reluctant in filling the questionnaires due to the reason being that there were not educated. Furthermore, most of the questionnaires distributed online were not filled out by the target respondents and this gave limited information gathering. Nevertheless, information gathered seems to be biased, because some of the questions were not structured well to get good answers.
Conclusively, Information gathered may be prone to inaccuracy, due to lack of access to some of the respondents at the Redeemed Christian church of God.
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