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History and Cultural Tradition of the Australian Indigenous

Paper Type: Free Assignment Study Level: University / Undergraduate
Wordcount: 2732 words Published: 30th Apr 2020

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The Australian Indigenous (Aboriginal) has a distinct historical, cultural traditional and their unique identities to those non-indigenous people. The Indigenous Economic Development Strategy 2011-2018 (Strategy) is designed as guideline map for helping indigenous people to achieve the same opportunities to participate for economic as Australians people. Within this economic development program will create the right to enabling an environment for indigenous people. The government has increased businesses and opportunities for employment to support indigenous people in the remote area, within this will make it more easily available goods and services for indigenous people. The government also purchase more power to help indigenous business and assisted entrepreneurs who need to established or want to grow small businesses. The purpose of this paper is to see what has been the measured adopted in (education) and (business entrepreneurship) and how this two area successful between indigenous and non-indigenous people whether the Strategy able to help indigenous people wellbeing as well.

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According to (Altman, 2006) the indigenous population approximately around 120,000 and about 1,200 people live in discrete communities and very remote communities, but these communities are small compared to a number of the population it’s merely average only 100 people each. Moreover, indigenous population total about 25 percent and 20 percent of the population has live in outside an area which covers more than one million square kilometers (Altman, 2006). According to (ABS, 2016) data indigenous people have different groups and their own language within this, it will lead indigenous people at risk, affected negatively from the workplace and hardly for searching jobs in future. The thesis is that issues with economic, therefore, a passive welfare has continuously corrupted to the indigenous social relationship. Consequently, to assimilate the communities in Australia and economic development, the Australian government has launched a new ‘Strategy’ 2018 for indigenous people to help them has a better chance and opportunity as non-indigenous. Therefore, young indigenous people can get a proper education, better jobs and get more income to support their families.

Firstly, the table below is showing a difference between indigenous and non-indigenous. According to this data, we can see that over the fives main areas indigenous people still lack a support from the government while comparing to non-indigenous people who supported themselves not waiting just only from the government. But the two areas we will focus on Education and Business Entrepreneurship.

(Education) as you can see data showed a Year 12 attainment about 47.4% age (20-24) young indigenous will be a success completing education, while 83.3% same age groups data showed from non-indigenous people who achieved a huge success, with skills, knowledge, and confidence with their ability to work. The gap between this has become an issue because nearly 36.4% of indigenous people are still lacking skills and proper education, plus lack of support and language barrier.

Figure 1: Differences In Economic Indicators Between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous

(Source: The Indigenous Economic Development Strategy 2011-2018)

We can’t deny that with a good quality of education and proper teaching is a foundation to make indigenous people succeed in life. As individuals educated from their early childhood to a higher educational, young indigenous can obtain more quality skills and knowledge after indigenous people have graduated from universities, they will have much more opportunities to apply for a job without any issues. The current level of education for indigenous people now is not very improvement much, as mention before indigenous are still lacking a support from the government which means indigenous people need to wait until it approved from the government.

Another evidence to prove an argue close gap between indigenous and non-indigenous attendance is shown below:

Figure 2: Indigenous Attendance Rates

(Source: closing the gap- Prime Minister’s report 2018)

Generally, this matter the government can’t deny that attendance is not important. The attendance rate for indigenous is lower than non-indigenous. For example, the data above the shown number of indigenous student 82.3%, which lower than non-indigenous student 93% in 2017, this leading gap between does two about 10%. However, according to data attendance rate are no change and no change in the gap as well.

As mention, not all people have equal or get opportunities especially with indigenous people. Even though indigenous people have an exception in some area but still they need more help and support from the government. Education is an important part not just for indigenous people but it applies to all peoples. Within this education will help to support young indigenous people to achieve a better future and they can support their families.

The fact according to The Indigenous Economic Development Strategy 2011-2018 (Strategy) there are several areas government need to be improved for the educational outcome such as: Improve access to early childhood education – government need to ensure that all the young indigenous people will have an access to a quality program early childhood this has been active in 2013, also government need to deliver a teacher with a quality teaching early childhood before a formal schooling start, under a National Partnership Agreement on Early Childhood Education. The government has spent more than $970 million over five years from 2008. Indigenous educational outcome – government need to work with an educational provider to support more teaching quality to young indigenous people wider and more effective by Plans Personalized Learning. Improve indigenous literacy and numeracy outcome – according to (Prime Minister report’s 2018) show data that in 2017, year 9 has reached an average of Trajectory, which in track according to the national level, whereas other outcomes were below than an average Trajectory. Particularly, more/or less indigenous student has achieved a national standard level in numeracy (Prime Minister report’s 2018).

Figure 3: Indigenous meet an average national standard reading

(source: closing the gap- Prime Minister’s report 2018)

Figure 4: Indigenous meet an average national standard numeracy

(source: closing the gap- Prime Minister’s report 2018)

The proportion for indigenous student data shown below, by looking at the result in 2017 student has reached the more minimum level when compared to the proportion in 2008 which is lower. This was clearly shown that Year 3 and Year 5 from reading and Year 5 and Year 9 numeracy. Nevertheless, by looking at the changing column 2008-2017, the gap between indigenous and non-indigenous are still narrow as we don’t know what will change in future.

Figure 5: Proportion indigenous student meet an average national standard

(source: closing the gap- Prime Minister’s report 2018)

According to the diagram below, as you can see the number of student from non-indigenous people was higher than the number from the indigenous people. yet, there data shown indigenous number lightly increasing. Accordingly, to the gap between these two has been reducing with an improvement studying.

Figure 6: Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Student Reading

(source: closing the gap- Prime Minister’s report 2018)

The support of successful for the indigenous student to work the government strategies provided opportunities for work, scholarship, cadetship and mentoring – give the young indigenous student a chance to learn skills and knowledge to become a ranger, also cadetship to become a natural resource of management, lastly heritage activities and cultural study. Providing opportunities for an indigenous student can access school base and educational vocational level and training – by introducing a pathway program which indigenous student can focus on providing a school-based in traineeships in high school across a country to assist them making a vocational program training. Improving access to higher educational government need to encourage an indigenous student or promoting a view as a real option, which indigenous student can get a good education so they can reach their career goals in the future. Increasing a representative of indigenous Australians in the workforce – the government needs to provide a Higher Education Advisory Council to promotion and implementation in workforce strategy (The Indigenous Economic Development Strategy 2011-2018).

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(Business Entrepreneurship) according to figure 1 table, a data show that indigenous outcomes age 18-64 in a non-remote area with self-employed 6.7% compare to non-indigenous outcomes age 18-64 a non-remote area with self-employed 10.9%. the successful indigenous business sector is vital to economic indigenous development. While an indigenous leader can show others how their culture can take part in the Australian economy are invaluable outcomes as mentors and their role model. Business undertaking with a high-risk will come with an increase in failure rate.

A number of indigenous employment are still comparatively low. We can conclude that the indigenous entrepreneurs are still lacking a benefit from opportunities in some major cities from their region. Therefore, entrepreneurship in a remote area or in region area will face with the indigenous additional barrier and it hard to become successful to operated business such as lack of business experience and business advisory expert, limitation access to information, lack of financial service, service provider and small local market (The Indigenous Economic Development Strategy 2011-2018). The Australian government will continue to corporate with their partnership to support their growth and success in the indigenous business sector in region area.

According to (Prime Minister’s report 2018) there a decreasing in the number of indigenous employment rate from 48% – 46%, whereas, non-indigenous number of employment rate is no change with 73%. Furthermore, the number of indigenous women has increased in participating from 43% – 45% in the labor market. Instead, the number of employment rate for indigenous men were decreased of the market with a failing employment rate of 5% during a period of time.

Figure 7: Indigenous employment rate

(source: closing the gap- Prime Minister’s report 2018)

Figure 8: Indigenous gender employment rate

(source: closing the gap- Prime Minister’s report 2018)

The government needs to support the growth fro indigenous business sector via encouraging indigenous people to seek advice from a business expert to help them with planning strategies from a key stakeholder for the sector, also encourage skills development – to promote indigenous people going through by participating in business administration and management training via the educational course. Build a knowledge base on the indigenous business sector – which needs to work together with ABS to decide a better solution, size, diversity, growth area and success factor from the private sector.

Another sector is most important are the financial sector, we can’t say that this is not a source of entire business, as indigenous people they need a financial support to help them start-up business or help then continually operate a business. To improve the access in this part indigenous need the government support to meet their need in business so they will be more client centers and services in business development regional area from start-up growth and business support program, to ensure that mainstream support business program is accessible for indigenous people and businesses networks. Removing barrier to accessing financial – need to work with the businesses leaders, to improve financial small and medium indigenous corporation. However, the private sector is also important, as you know the private sector is another option to help indigenous business bring them into the mainstream economy.

Helping indigenous business to get competitive can expose their business increase, this will help indigenous business gain more valuable experience and service delivery. Not to mention the government are the largest purchasing of goods and services in the Australian economy. Therefore, opportunities for indigenous business are to deliver government service to other area and region with a high population of indigenous people. This support part role from the government to indigenous businesses is to build their capacity to purchase for contracts from the government. Therefore, it not an easy task for an indigenous business to be successful in region area because as mention their need a lot of support from the government to be successful, at the present time indigenous still lacking support from the government even though the government has support in some area.

In conclusion, education and training problem are the biggest factors outcomes for indigenous people and this affected indigenous income and living standard as well. The low skills and knowledge you have mean the indigenous employment are not valuable to work. Therefore, education and training are an important factor for indigenous labour force in Australia market. As mention, they’re a barrier between indigenous and non-indigenous people as indigenous people have fewer opportunities and compare to non-indigenous people, in term of earning their income indigenous people has earned less due to lacking knowledge and skills training than non-indigenous people. While non-indigenous people have earned more income due to meet a standard national requirement. this barrier should break-down between indigenous and non-indigenous so they can have an equal right earning. Lastly according to improvement for indigenous people are a need to retention at education as the grestest priority government need to focus on is to promote a larger employment equity among Australians economy.


Altman, J.C 2006,’The future of indigenous Australia: is there a path beyond the free market or welfare dependency for our indigenous people’, Arena Magazine, no.84, p.8.

Closing the gap- Prime Minister’s report 2018, Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, viewed 29 May 2018, https://www.pmc.gov.au/sites/default/files/publications/ctg-report-2018.pdf.

Census: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population. 2018. Census: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/MediaRealesesByCatalogue/02D50FAA9987D6B7CA25814800087E03?OpenDocument.

Indigenous economic development strategy 2011–2018 | APO. 2018. Indigenous economic development strategy 2011–2018 | APO. [ONLINE] Available at: http://apo.org.au/node/27022.


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