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Concepts of Leadership

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Business
Wordcount: 2005 words Published: 2nd Jan 2018

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Leadership is universally reviewed and defined by numerous authors and originators. Leaders have the ability to inspire and influence others in a team and encourage them to perform effectively towards organizational goals. Mullins explained, Leadership “is the relationship through which one person influences the behavior or action of other people” (Mullins 2010:373). Leaders in the modern age conceive an ambiance that motivates the skills and develop receptivity of learning among the team members and initialize steps to participate in human resources and financial performances.

Gary yukl believed that Leaders should have a crystal clear vision before motivating the team members towards cultural change in the organization (Gary yukl 2010:308). An inspired vision is cardinal to accumulate hold from the team members and outsiders. Leadership is about generating a specific vision which stands out and in this modern world.¹

In addition Leadership is not about leaders, it is about the functions of leaders. Leaders could be effective, if the three areas of needs are satisfied within the work². The achievement of the leader can be extemporizing by fulfilling the following three needs (Mullins 2010:378):

Task needs;

Team maintenance needs;

Individual needs.


Source: Adair ,Action centered Leadership.

John Adair model of Action-centered leadership induces to understand the relationship between the leader and team. It benefits the organization to complete the tasks before the targeted time and attain company’s goals. The traditional role of Action-centered leader is to monitor and control the activities of group and leaders should serve as an advisor and consultant³. It gives attention not only for the functional aspects but also the behavioral aspects of leadership.


I personally feel this model to be more effective considered to other types of model. It is because; this model balances both Individual needs and Team satisfaction. This model serves as an example to demonstrate the relationship between the management and Leader. Therefore, “Action centered model” of leadership is preferred for any kind of organization to produce effective results.


Laurie J.Mullins (2010) Nineth Edition edn. Management & Organisational Behavior. Italy: Prentice Hall

wikipedia (n. d.) Functional Leadership model [online] available from [20/03/11]

Gary Yukl (2010) Seventh edition edn. Leadership in Organisation. New jersey: Prentice Hall

Lyman W. porte, Harold l. angle, Robert W.Allen Second editon. Organisational Influence process


In today’s present situation, Power aspect occupies a vital role in the current stage of leadership environment. Traditionally, Leadership is connected with Power aspect and infers to control, co-ordinate and influence them towards succeeding the organization goals or economy. Power is identified as the capacity of one person to inspire another person (YUKL 2010:199). Power is the ability of one, who influences the behavior and attitude of other people¹. Leadership style varies in relation with each Leader. It is identified as the way Leaders perform and behave in the organization towards subordinates.

According to French and Raven, there are five significant types of power (Mullins 2010:397),

Reward power is grounded on the approach of his/her employer and capability to abide by the regulations of the organization. It can develop a source of influence towards leader². This will assist organization in achieving its goals and perspectives. One of the finest instances for this power is GOOGLE, where employers are given freedom of innovative action and praised for innovations.

Coercive power is borne with associates who have the power to punish subordinates for not completing the desired role. It is being hinged on subordinate’s conception that Leader charge, if the directives are not compiled with. This power is related Authoritative style is leadership.

For Instance: I have personally faced in my workplace for not attending the group meetings and I was been warned by the high level authorities.

Legitimate power defines that he/she in a position to imply authority over the subordinates and make them to follow the directives. This power is usually dealt with the level of position they are placed. “Higher the position, Greater the power”³

For Instance: In Indian Police academy, CBI has higher power than any police officer.

Expert power is basically identified as the expertise which the leader naturally or practically possesses. This category is radically narrowed and exclusive knowledge will remain continuously within the leader. They don’t make inconsistent and restless decisions and they even act confidently (Gary Yukl 2010:209).

Referent power is the capacity of an individual to influence admiration and apperceive attractiveness. It is depicted with personal characteristics, charisma and strong loyalty towards them. It is considered among one of the five social powers.

For Instance: Steve Jobs and Bill Gates are the best examples of referent power. They both have the attractiveness to extract people’s attention. They fall under the category of Charismatic Leadership Style.


Source: (hakunamatatajumbojumbo.blogspot.com)


Laurie J.Mullins (2010) Nineth Edition edn. Management & Organisational Behavior. Italy: Prentice Hall

Power [online] available from http://www.strom.clemson.edu/becker/prtm320/notes/power320.pdf> [20/03/2011]

Power and its types [online] available from http://www.hrbartender.com/2010/training/7-types-of-power-in-the-workplace/> [25/03/2011]

Gary Yukl (2010) Seventh edition edn. Leadership in Organisation. New jersey: Prentice Hall.


The path goal theory:

According to GREAT MAN THEORY “Leaders are born and not made”. In the changing world, Leaders are rarely born and many leaders are situational type of leaders. Leaders do not have the inherent capabilities to lead a team or society. One has to develop his/her skills to control a group of people. Many leaders are now situational and apply practical concepts to solve problems I prefer this type of behavior since it could be helpful to tackle situations physically and psychologically and even financially.

The path goal theory of leadership was discovered to examine the behavior of a leader. Initially Evans (1970) covered only two types of behavior namely supportive and Directive Leadership. (Mullins 2010:388) Later, House and Mitchell (1971) added upon two more behaviors called Participative and Achievement behavior. (Gary Yukl 2010:169).

The directive leader behavior exemplify to situations where the leaders monitor followers and allows them to perform their specified tasks and direct them to abide by the rules and regulations. This leadership behavior is similar to Ohio State University Studies.

Feedback: I had experienced this type of leadership behavior when I was working in one of the Leather Company in INDIA.I was fresh to the Industry and I had no idea about the process and procedures. The team manager used to discuss the dated targets should be achieved? When should be the purchase made? Etc…But there was no opinions directed from the manager like how to achieve it? How to hit the target? There was a lack of communication between the leader and subordinates.

The Supportive leader behavior indulges an accessible way and friendly manner and concentrates immense concern for the welfare and necessities of the subordinates. This behavior is helpful in stressful situation and when the tasks are given psychological manner.

The Participative Leader behavior means taking into account about the views and opinions of subordinates before the task is performed or completed.

Feedback: My colleagues were so supportive when I was preparing for debate on OFFLINE MARKETING. This behavior was very helpful in identifying the lack of communication skill in me and team members were so cooperative and understanding.

The Achievement-oriented Leader behavior indulges in implying organizational goals to extract better performances and higher confidence from subordinates.

Feedback: When I used to work in HDFC, Team leaders used to throw up various packages; if the particular allotted amounts of products are sold they will be taken a free trip to Maldives. I banged highest amount of commission in the year for successfully completing the 50000+ target worth of Insurance products within targeted dates.

All these types of behavior can be felt or experienced in different situations by same person. Leaders use any of the above mentioned behavior to induce followers and to attract them.


Gary Yukl (2010) Seventh edition edn. Leadership in Organisation. New jersey: Prentice Hall

University of Exeter (n. d.) The rewiew of Leadership Theories and framework [online] available from http://centres.exeter.ac.uk/cls/documents/mgmt_standards.pdf [24/03/2011]

Path goal theory of Leadership [online] available from http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/styles/path_goal_leadership.htm [25/03/2011]

The five practices of Exemplary Leadership [online] available from http://media.wiley.com/product_data/excerpt/83/07879567/0787956783.pdf [24/03/2011]

What does it mean to lead? [online] available from http://www.russellconsultinginc.com/docs/Leadership.htm [24/03/2011]


Leadership is gaining vital role over management success. As we have critically analyzed the leadership concepts, behaviors and about how leaders fondle powers using different styles, we get into the key tensions of leaders and how the leader can overcome using the prominent five practices of exemplary leadership:

  • Model the way
  • Inspire a shared vision
  • Challenge the process
  • Enable others to act
  • Encourage the heart

If the leaders are to be effective the above practices are to be experienced. For Instance,

Mahatma Gandhi is one of the prominent and significant leaders in India and is called as “Father of Nation”. He played a key role in attaining freedom with his clear vision and confidence on the people. The main purpose of the freedom struggle was to gain freedom from British government for Indian people.

What made Gandhi to stand out?

His approach towards pertaining freedom and his leadership skills made people to follow him. His behavior style towards the people was very supportive and participative. His vision was much focused and he led the people of the country towards “Non Violence “concept. This makes him transformational leader and charismatic leader. Leader-member exchange theory (LMX) explains leader should have an exchange relationship with followers to establish participation and infer commitment towards freedom.(Gary Yukl 2010)

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President Barack Obama says “Throughout my life, I have always looked to Mahatma Gandhi as an inspiration”. Exemplary leaders enable all members to act together. Victor Vroom and Lyman porter says “The relationship between motivation and performance is moderated by the amount of freedom to act” (John Miner 2010:97). Finally, Gandhi overcame all the issues with the help of exemplary leadership practices and expectancy motivational theories.


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