“GSM based Control System” implements the emerging applications of the GSM technology. Using GSM networks, a control system has been proposed that will act as an embedded system which can monitor and control appliances and other devices locally using built-in input and output peripherals. Remotely the system allows the user to effectively monitor and control the house/office appliances and equipment via the mobile phone set by sending the preconfigured- commands. GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) is a cellular communication standard. In GSM data and audio are not separated. Roaming readiness and fraud prevention are two major advantages of this system. GSM is the most used cell phone technology in the world with over 73% of the worldwide market.
Home Automation is a concept that has been developing reasonably slowly when you compare it to how other technology such as televisions and smartphones have progressed. Whereas other technologies have developed and become much cheaper, home automation is still generally quite an expensive and exclusive concept for most people. Automation can be viewed as an option for luxury or as an aid for disable people. But, due to the cost factor, the technology has been seen as a luxury product rather than the disability aid.
Home Automation can cover a lot of functions. It can be used to perform some small tasks just for convenience like opening and closing of gate just for convenience or for some complex tasks like security of the home using CCTV cameras, motion sensors, Heat sensors etc.
Home automation should function in such a way that it makes the tasks simple and easier. Everything can be done in just by the clicking or touching some keys. It wouldn’t make any sense if the work done by automation is performed through more steps and complexity than the original tasks.
Home Automation also helps in saving considerable amount of energy consumed. A simple touch in one’s mobile phone can switch on or off the lights of their home miles and miles far away. People can control their electrical equipment like lights, freeze, televisions etc. from anywhere. This helps in keeping the earth clean and green.
The disadvantages to some of the systems are budget constraints. If a product is to become successful it needs to be readily accessible to the mass market. But the sophisticated HA systems are not an option for a lot of people. Hence, affordable and easily configurable systems are in the need of development, even if they do have slightly less functionalities than the high-end systems.
Home Automation cannot be popular if there is a need of a technician every time there is some fault or some new devices need to be joined in the system. Hence, it needs to be simple, user friendly and effective.
Technological development is the forefront of today’s scientific world. Everyday some new products have been launched with various features. A simple mobile phone can perform huge and complex nowadays. People want to perform all the tasks just by pressing some keys and buttons. Home automation also the result of the advancement in technology.
Mark D. Gross wrote in his paper that the standard residential construction design has changed due to home automation system installation requirements. The complex systems needs more sophisticated wiring and devices and may also consume considerable amount of space within houses. Hence, special emphasis should be given while designing the buildings. However, simple and basic systems can also be well secured and they do not need some extra attention while constructing the buildings.
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A journal of S panalippan and team published in International Journal of Computer Applications shows various ways of home automation and concludes that the GSM based home automation is the simplest and most economical way of making one home smart. The devices required for this system are easily available on the market and the system is very easy to install, maintain, troubleshoot and debug.
Research done by Mr. Baris Yuksekkaya and team shows that speech recognition technology can also be used for home automation but the efficiency of speech recognition varies upon the sensors used and the way people pronounce words. There is a substantial amount of unknown factor in this technology. Artificial intelligence can be used for speech recognition but this makes system complex and therefore, more expensive.
Various other researches have also shown that for cheap and simple system, GSM based home automation is the best alternative. However, for smooth and sufficient operation, most of the writer suggest a use of good internet service.
Devices Required for the Design:-
Microcontrollers are basically a computer which performs the commanded tasks in a set algorithm. They have their own processor, memory, Input/ output interfaces and clock functions. These makes microcontrollers efficient, fast and they also decrease external devices and circuits in a system which makes system less complex and cheap.
There are various microcontroller available in the market. ATMega16 is used for this circuit synthesis. The other options would be Arduino, Raspberry pi etc.
Figure 1:- Pin Configuration of ATmega 16 Figure 2: Block Diagram of Atmega 16
After a set of command is installed in the microcontroller, the electronic devices are connected with it with the help of relay.
A relay is an electronic switch which has a set of contact terminals and acts according to the pre-set commands. Relays are used when multiple circuits are to be operated form one command. A type of relay that can handle the high power required to directly control the load is called a contactor. Contactor is the best option for home automation system.
Dual-tone multi-frequency signaling (DTMF) is used for telecommunication signaling over analog telephone lines in the voice-frequency band between telephone handsets and other communications devices and the switching center. Each set of horizontal and vertical lines in the keypad is assigned with a unique frequency. Hence, whenever a key is pressed a unique frequency is produced which makes every number unique to other.
The DTMF decoder decodes the transmitted frequency using Goertzel Algorithm.
Figure 3:- Circuit Diagram of DTMF decoder
Figure 4:- Block Diagram of GSM Based Home Automation
Figure 5:- Flowchart of GSM Based Home Automation
The capabilities of this system are what make it so interesting. From the convenience of a simple cell phone, a user is able to control and monitor virtually any electrical devices. This makes it possible for users to rest assured that their belongings are secure and other electrical appliances are not left running when they leave the house.
 Mark D. Gross, ‘‘Smart House and Home Automation Technologies’’, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA 98195-5720, 1998.
 Satish Palaniappan, Naveen Hariharan, Naren T Kesh, Vidhyalakshimi S, Angel Deborah S,” International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 116” https://research.ijcaonline.org/volume116/number11/pxc3902601.pdf
 Baris Yuksekkaya, A. Alper Kayalar, M. Bilgehan Tosun, M. Kaan Ozcan, and Ali Ziya Alkar “A GSM, Internet and Speech Controlled Wireless Interactive Home Automation System”, 2006, IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, Vol. 52(3) , pp. 837 – 843
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