Building with safety place is an asset that people need to occupy either for shelter or work. It is important to maintain the building in order to ensure that there is no depreciate value of building. British Standard (8210) defines a building is an asset which needs to maintained so that the value of building not depreciate. As an owner or tenant, we must realize that building is important asset for us to keep it in a good condition to prevent any effect that can cause damage or failure on the building. Any damage occurs on the building must do the maintenance work in order to avoid the critical damage occur on the building. The small damage will need less money rather than critical damage. So that, owner or tenants should call the maintenance contractor to carry out the maintenance work on their building.
Maintenance as the combination of all technical and administrative action to retain it, restore it so that it can perform as required (British Standard, 8210). Other than that, Building Standard (3811) defines the maintenance as a work that carry out the restoration of every part of building and its contents with compliance with standard.
Servicing, rectification and replacement are separate components in maintenance (F.C. Harper, 1969). Servicing work is done regular interval or sometimes day-to-day maintenance. Rectification work usually occurs at early life of the building that may reduce cost of maintenance. Replacement work is done for building with physical breakdown of materials or element.
British Standard (3811) subdivides maintenance into two which are planned and unplanned maintenance. Planned maintenance comprises planned preventive maintenance and planned corrective maintenance which are having different definition among them. Planned preventive maintenance means work which carried out to prevent the failure of item or facility within the expected life of facility meanwhile planned corrective maintenance means work carried to restore the items or facility that failure to bring it back operation.
Nick Robinson (1982) explain maintenance should be shown to give value for money like anything else, and many maintenance plans can be improved through closer control. The maintenance should be control at the beginning with less cost without to use more money if not maintain it next.
2.0 ORGANISING MAINTENANCE WORK
Failure building will need restoration from expertise person such as maintenance contractor who working for profit and direct labour who absence of profit motive in order to keep the building as at the original state. Ivor H.Seeley (1976) explain maintenance work can be undertaken by contractors, direct labour forces or a combination of both systems and the decision may be based on a number of criteria. Both type of labour have a cost to employ them. The cost of direct labour is from wages and materials such as administrative overheads such as labour oncosts, and associated clerical, travelling and supervisory costs, and depot costs meanwhile the cost for employing contractor are contractor’s charges plus administrative overheads, such as inviting and comparing tenders, drawing up contracts, work supervision and checking invoices (Ivor H.Seeley, 1976). Bampton (1967) said it may be preferable to confine direct labour to little more than emergency and scheduled maintenance, and to use contractors for the seasonal, major and specialist work.
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2.1 Maintenance Organization
Organisation can mean an organization or a firm or enterprise of some kind or it can mean the process of getting something organised. It is important for the maintenance manager to make sure that the maintenance work are done efficiently in order to keep everyone feel happy. So that, to get the efficient work, maintenance manager should organized the maintenance work in their department in order to ensure that they can meet tenants need and their objectives. There is only one manager can carried maintenance organization in one department. Poor organization work such as planning of work will result poor maintenance work. Maintenance manager is important to apply the management function in department to achieve their goal. There are four managerial functions which are planning, organizing, leading and controlling. Successful organization is important to ensure that the staffs will their work respectively. Maintenance staff must know what work is approved, what parts have arrived and where parts are located to keep everything run smoothly. It is important to record who the maintenance worked after the task is complete.
Nick Robinson (1982) said all maintenance managers operate from a maintenance plan whether it be a manually operated of resources available, or sophisticated computerized setup. It is the duty of maintenance management to plan the maintenance plan which means the organization of maintenance within an agreed policy. In order to achieve the maintenance objective, maintenance manager should ensure that the maintenance work will follow the statement in maintenance policy as well as a guide for maintenance management for make decision making.
2.2 The Planning and Scheduling of Maintenance
Maintenance planning and scheduling is types of plan of organization to organize their department for maintenance work. Chris Hykin (n.d.) explains planning and scheduling is a disciplined approach for utilize the existence of maintenance resources in order to reduce time and production costs. Richard D. Palmer (2007) explain the maintenance system is an effective if there are effort applied to eliminate in every case the cause of lost production due to equipment failure or to maximize equipment effectiveness. Richard also considers that proper maintenance planning and scheduling will achieve the organization goal. The most efficient way for achieving this goal is to plan proper maintenance scheduling and planning because it will contribute to reduce the maintenance cost due to scheduling the work to be done. Besides that, by maintenance planning and scheduling, it will increase the use of maintenance workforce then will reduce delays and interruptions. By adopting the best methods and appoint the qualified workers may improve the quality of maintenance work. Umar M. Al-Turki (2009) explain an effective planning and scheduling will contributes the quality of maintenance work by adopting the best methods, procedures and assigning the most qualified crafts for the job.
Planning is the process whereby the manager set up the decision for the future and the action taken to achieve that future decision. Normally, at planning stage, maintenance manager will create or plan the company goal such as to achieve the tenant satisfaction. During planning also maintenance manager will plan the actions need to be taken to achieve the goal such as provide service for tenant’s property with a minimum time. According to Umar M. Al-Turki (2009), the process of planning can be divided into three basic levels which depending on the planning horizon which are Long range planning, Medium range planning, and Short range planning.
Long range planning
It is the planning process that covers a period of several years. This long range planning normally empowers maintenance planners to access essential information in real time, analyze inputs and scenarios, and highlight areas of concern. Plan progress can be easily tracked across the organization and dynamically updated in response to sudden changes or opportunities.
Medium range planning
It is normally covers a period of one month to 1 year. Umar M. Al Turki (2009) said minimum range plan is the plan which specify how the operation of maintenance force and it will provides details for construction jobs, major overhauls, plant shutdowns, preventive maintenance plans, and vacation planning. For medium range planning, maintenance management should plan with aim to prepare more the maintenance work. Umar M. Al Turki (2009) explain the medium range planning process is coupled with a scheduling process which is considered long range scheduling known as the master schedule due to the maintenance work including the routine and preventive maintenance.
Short range planning
It is the planning process that concerns periods of 1 day to 1 week. Short range planning will determine the elements required in order performing task and it is prepare once starting to execute the work.
Any works that intend to make in order or sequences will put in schedule so that the work will planned together in sequence. There are three levels of maintenance schedule that can be prepared which are long-range (master) schedule, weekly schedule, and daily schedule. Maintenance manager will prepare scheduling to guide or planned for their staff to do the maintenance work. The preventive maintenance are done by follow the schedule to prevent the major damage occur on the building. Long-Range (master) schedule is work schedule for major maintenance work that cover period of three months to one year. Normally the master schedule is planned for long term demand of maintenance work with available resources. Along this period, the maintenance manager will identified the spare parts and ordering material in advance. Meanwhile, weekly schedule is maintenance work that covers in 1 week and it is normally generated from master schedule. Weekly schedule will prepare for the current week and it is allow 10% to 15% of workforce available for emergency work. Daily schedule are prepared by covering 1 day and its normally generated from weekly schedule. Maintenance manager will prepare it the day before.
2.3 Classify of Maintenance Work
People will call maintenance manager if there are problem occur in their building and maintenance staff have their liability to maintain the owner’s or tenant’s building in good condition. There are three classification of maintenance work which are corrective, preventive, and modification. Maintenance manager will classify the maintenance work according to the three categorized either the maintenance are corrective maintenance or preventive maintenance, or modification maintenance. First of all, maintenance manager will define that the damage or failure of building is emergency to do maintenance due to major damage and it will interrupt the operation so that maintenance manager will appoint contractor maintenance to do the corrective maintenance as soon as possible because it also may damage the occupier of building. Besides that, for the preventive maintenance work, maintenance manager will plan or make schedule at early stage of building design the routines work that should carried out by contractor maintenance or direct labour daily or weekly such as any services on the machine. Other than that, the modification maintenance will be carried out depend on eliminating the cause of repeated breakdowns.
2.4 Recording of Information
Any information regarding details of property owner or tenant and any details regarding repairs work done should record by maintenance manager. Ivor H.Seeley (1976) explain recording of information concerning properties and repairs is best undertaken on a card system providing ready means of communication by means of a computer. The records are sometimes described as a property register. The information that recorded should include the tenants and owner details to ease contractor maintenance do their routine services for preventive maintenance. Tenants who want make any complaint should issues notice to maintenance department so that contractor maintenance can do the corrective work as soon as possible.
2.5 Execution of Maintenance Work
Once the property or building had detected any damage, the maintenance work then executed. The maintenance manager who want to contract out the maintenance work to outsource contractor will prepared open tender in order to select the best tender and contractors whose expertise in such field will choices. Normally the contractors will interview their report. The maintenance contractor will appoint their staff or subcontractors to run maintenance services and the services provided are based on anything statement that state in contract or maintenance policy. Normally the more urgent task will be maintain or assessed first and it will divided into those need to be done in the current year, in the next five years and the next ten years (Gurjit Singh, TT).
2.5.1 Work in Progress
Once work has start, tenant will sign the contract and then the contract will keep in safety place like drawer. The contract should easy to find if any case happen. Any work done on site should compliance with the corrected contract. Figures 2 represent the flow of maintenance work is carried out.
Brian Wood (2009) explains supervision is a management activity carried out to ensure that the work intended is carried out correctly and expeditiously. The supervision activity is normally will conducted by maintenance contractor that had skill to practice.
The inspection work is conduct at the planning stage which is during the establishment of standard, manager should differentiate between acceptable and unacceptable work. Manager should inspect and ensure that the work which not in conformity with contract must be removed due to the re-doing of work may take time. So that, the work must be check regularly to ensure work done compliance with contract and the inspection work normally will carry out at periodically.
Normally the payment will be made on the work that has been done by someone. The allowance payment that specify in form of contract will made to contractor at interval for the work done by them. According to Brian Wood (2009), the contract should specify the time at which interim payments will become due and the basis on which the amounts of such payments are to be determined.
Brian Wood (2009) said often all parties involve client, contractor and all others are so pleased when a building is completed that they forget to assess how well things went and how they could be done better next time. They are no alert what the condition of their building is until big damage occurs. There are also no good communication among contractor and client without recognize that they will need each other soon and continuing relationship.
Figure 2 Executing building maintenance
Sources: Brian Wood, Department Of Real Estate and Construction School of the Built Envirinment Oxford Brookes University
Does contract continue?
On complete satisfaction, confirm arrangements for notification and rectification of defects. Issue Certificate of Practical Completion
Ensure satisfactory correction of all defects-take possession of any certificates and all user manuals
Discuss, agree and put in hand arrangements for continuing recording, review and repair of defects
Time to end contract?
If possible extricate yourself as smoothly as possible. Likely to be an expensive option to break the contract-if possible try to re-establish smooth working relationship
Make periodic payments as appropriate per tender contract
Candid discussion with supervisor – (do not approach operatives) – agree new arrangements
From the explanation, it can be concluded that organizing maintenance work are important to ensure that the maintenance work are carry out in order. The good planning will provide the best and efficient maintenance work. Contractor maintenance or direct labour will appointed by maintenance manager to carried out maintenance work. The works done by contractor or direct labour will paid by maintenance manager as specified in contract that had been sign by both parties. Maintenance work will carried out based on scheduling that had been planned by manager. The planning maintenance comprise three basic levels of planning maintenance which are long range planning, medium range planning, and short range planning. After the planning was set up, the action to be taken will classified to different type of maintenance which comprise corrective, preventive and modification. Preventive maintenance should apply according to scheduling to prevent the building failure. Normally minor service will carry out interval either per day, or per week. Major services will carry out per year. Manager should inspect and ensure that the work which not in conformity with contract must be removed due to the re-doing of work may take time. Lastly, Maintenance manager is responsible to keep information details about tenant’s property well to easy work by contractor maintenance. The good communication also encouraged between client and contractor maintenance due to they will need each other in future.
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