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Brief History Of Teacher Education Education Essay

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Education
Wordcount: 5403 words Published: 1st Jan 2015

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Education is a source of transmission of knowledge from one generation to another generation. It is basic tool which enables learners to modify and groom their personalities as well as enhances their cognitive, affective and psychomotor skills. “Standards based education, in general and teacher education particular, is part of global movement of quality assurance” (Mirza, 2009).

Prayer (2010) explains that “teacher plays his pivotal role in achieving goals and objectives in class room. The teacher is real history maker”. Trained and competent teacher is the key person to guide the ideas and interest of learners with his good leadership because he is the resourceful person to convey all administrative instruction and objectives for institution which prepare learners as best citizen (Noble, 1929; Kumar, 2010).

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It is world-wide reality that the investment in education is more beneficial and long term. For this purpose, all over the world, there is expending a large amount in public and private sector. According to World Bank, UNDP, UNESCO, FBS, Ministry of education (2010), Pakistan is spending 2.1% GDP in public sector and literacy rate is 57% in 2009-10. “Pakistan assured in achieving target of universal primary education by 2015 under Education for All with minimization of drop-out rate” (National Education Policy, 2009).

The Government of Pakistan is trying to improve the education system in Pakistan through sweep changes in content, teaching methodologies, quality of teachers, learning environment, training of pre-service and in-service teachers, administrative and managerial staff. National Education Policy (2009) envisages that the one of the reasons of high drop-out rate and low quality of outcomes in Pakistan, is poor structure of education system where our policy makers unable to understand professional and global standards of education and untrained Head teachers, District Education Officers (DEOs), Executive District Officers (EDOs) and Directors Public Instructions (DPIs) are working for implementation of policy.

Government of Punjab is striving for the betterment of quantity and quality of education. For this purpose, Directorate of Staff Development, Lahore [DSD] is playing significant role. This apex organization is providing training to pre-service education and training at 33 Government Colleges of Elementary Teachers [GCET/GCE] and In-service Training of Teachers [INSET]. For the implementation of decisions and improvement of monitoring and evaluation system, administrative body of District Government such as Executive District Officers [EDOs], District Education Officers [DEOs], Head Designates [HD], head teachers of secondary and Higher Secondary Schools [HSS] are getting training by DSD with the cooperation of Provincial Monitoring and Implementation Unit [PITE], Science Educator Center [SEC] and Non-Governmental Organizations [NGOs].

Statement of Problem

Well trained teachers are indispensable for successful teaching and learning process. Proper in-service teachers training are vital for the professional development of the teachers. DSD is the oldest and largest in-service teachers training institute in the Punjab. The study intended to evaluate different aspects of in-service teacher training programs by DSD.

Objectives of the Study

To find different modes of training offered by DSD.

To study the working of DSD and to elaborate the benefits of training imparted by DSD.

To evaluate the outcomes of training in the views of participants.

To find the Satisfaction level of the participants.

To suggest recommendations for the improvement of in-service teacher’s training programs.

Research Questions

Research questions, generally require in all types of researches in social as well as natural sciences with the possible exception of descriptive, survey type studies as the present one. Therefore in such cases research questions are formulated. The following research questions have been formulated in this research.

What content, material and methods are used for training?

What are the facilities provided to trainers during training?

How much the training is beneficial for the professional growth of in-service teachers?

How much is it useful in improving their performance?

What are the suggestions for improvement of training?

What is level of satisfaction of the participants?

Significance of the Study

Education is to bring up, to lead out or develop intrinsic characteristics of pupils and way of conveying knowledge, culture according to their aptitudes and capabilities. The wide networks of schools are working for the expansion of education but unfortunately they are only increasing the quantity rather than quality of education. Quality of teaching and learning process is solely dependent on the education and pedagogical skills of the teachers. Better trained teachers can impart quality learning in a smooth way. Training is the needs of teachers remain prevalent even after the recruitment. Quality of education and product require training to fulfill the demands of current innovations and ever changing scenario. Training related to duties is beneficial for pre-service as well as in-service employees. Pre-service teacher training enables trainees to concentrate their actions and understanding of rules and regulations. In-service teacher training enhances their skills, capabilities and knowledge and leads to excellence of work. This process of in-service teachers’ training is gaining importance owing to the rapid expansion in knowledge and expeditious increase in technologies. This study will be important contribution in the process of in-service teacher’s training by identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the ongoing process of in-service teachers’ training in Punjab. Quality in-service training will enhance the professional development of Educational Managers, Heads of Primary/Elementary Schools, District Training and Resource Center (DTSC) Head/Principals Government College of Elementary Teachers (GCETs), Training of Lead Teacher Educators (LTEs) and, Induction Training of District Teacher Educators (DTEs), and Master Trainers of Secondary Educators, Training of Elementary School Teachers (ESTs). Training program is based on training objectives, selection of trainees and trainers, course material, use of audio visual aids, participations’ level of satisfaction and trainers’ knowledge. Therefore quality assurance is essential to evaluate training programs imparted by DSD.

Research Methodology

Triangulation research methodology (Questionnaire, semi-schedule interviews and schedule classroom observation as non-participant observer) is used. The respondents were selected on the basis of participants of in-service training in DSD. Questionnaire was constructed on the base of review of literature and expert opinion about the induction of training, measuring of skill levels of trainers and effectiveness of training material. Semi-schedule interviews were organized under the objectives of the study to measure the objectives of training in DSD, selection criteria of input of training such as teaching material, facilities, learning environment and monitoring and evaluation of training. Suggestions were asked for the improvement of training programs by both the trainers and management of DSD.


There are directed many pre-service, in-service teacher training and training of public institutional administrators by DSD but due to lack of time, study will focus on on-going in-service teacher training directed by DSD during the period of June to August, 2012.

Chapter II

Review of Literature

Education is indispensable part of success of any nation. Educational system depends on its teachers. No nation can rise on the map of the world without quality education system. Quality of education can be achieved with quality teachers. Quality education needs clearly defined objectives, well prepared curriculum, equipped classrooms, learning environment and trained teachers to run the system (Khatoon, 2008).

Teacher is education provider who nourishes cognitive and psychomotor skills of learners and enables them to face the challenges of academic as well as everyday life. Teacher training is essential for the preparation of teachers to attain the objectives. For this purpose, there are two types of training provided to teachers, pre-service and in-service teacher training (Aggarwal, 2010).

Teaching methodology is the most important support in achieving the classroom objectives. Learning to teach is complex procedure. It is important to associate knowledge bases process in training. Teaching methodology focuses on teacher thinking, teacher cognition and pre-planning before teaching and conceptual models in planning for realization of need for training. Pre-service and in-service teacher training is essential part for effective education system (Banasal, 2007).

The condition of quality and quantity of education is poor in Pakistan. The ratio of higher education is low comparatively other countries in Asia. There are problems of less qualified staff, library and research facilities, and irrelevant curriculum with market demand, financial and political crisis, and ineffective system of assessment and evaluation as par with international standards (Memon et al., 2010).

Quality education in Pakistan needs quality teachers to compete the global challenges. Monitoring and evaluation of learning outcomes contributes in quality assurance of education. National Professional Standards has priority to sweep changes in training and planning programs for pre-service teachers, in-service teachers, teacher educators and head teachers in Pakistan (MoE, 2009).

Table 2.1: UNICEF Framework of Education Quality


Quality Indicators


Quality of learners

Students’ good health and nutrition, early childhood psychosocial development experiences, regular attendance, and family support for learning.


Quality of learning environments

Physical elements (e.g. school facilities, class size etc.), psychosocial elements (e.g. safe environment, teachers’ behavior, discipline policies, non-violence etc.), and service delivery (e.g. health services).


Quality of contents

Student-centered and standard based curriculum, uniqueness of local and national content, and focus on literacy, numeracy, and life skills.


Quality of processes

Indicators relating to teachers and teaching (e.g. teachers’ competence, support for student-centered learning, participation based teaching methods, teachers’ working conditions etc.), and supervision and support (e.g. administrative leadership, effective use of technology, diversity of processes and facilities etc.)


Quality of outcomes

Students’ achievement in literacy and numeracy, life skills, health outcomes, outcomes sought by parents, community participation, and learners’ confidence.

Source: Adapted from UNICEF (June, 2000).

It can be evaluated that the scope of teacher training builds the positive attitude in teachers towards educational change. Numerous articles, papers and seminars evaluate the significance of training in every field of life for proficiency in job in all over the world.

Brief History of Teacher Education

Formal teacher training institutes introduced in first decade of 18th century in Germany in western history and first teacher training college established in France in early 18th century by Roman Catholic monk Jean Batiste de la Salle (Bansal, 2007).

Teacher Education in sub-continent has a long history. Gurukul-centered tradition of the Vedic period and Budhistic vihara-based system continued in ancient India till 11th century A.D. Muslims introduced Maktab-based system in sub-continent under their rule. Basically Maktab-based system was the way of providing religious, moral and Arabic education in Mosque (Masjid) by Imam sahib (resource person) to learners. Both systems were popular equally till British rule. British rulers reformed education system as well as paid teacher education. British government invested funds for improvement and made documentations for the implementation and evaluation of their rules (Aggarwal, 2010).

The Calcutta University Commission (1917) under the supervision of Sir Michael Sadler recommended the increase in the output of trained teachers ratio and foundation of Education departments in University of Dacca and Calcutta. Sadler Commission focused on content, teaching skills and theoretical basics of training. In 20th century, during four decades (1900-1940) more teacher training colleges established and notable ratio increased of enrolled students. Refresher courses were introduced for in-service teachers and researchers in education were encouraged (Singh & Nath, 2008).

Concept and Need of Training

Abdullah (2009) cited long-lasting definitions for training and development. Training was defined as a planned process to modify attitude, knowledge or skills through learning experiences to achieve effective performance in an activity or range of activities. Its purpose, in the work situation, is to develop the abilities of the individual and to satisfy the current and future needs of the organization. (The Manpower Services Commission, 1982, p.62)

The quality of teacher education and training depends on the quality of trainers who should be well prepared for current challenges, able to face challenges of current scenario, master in their subjects and persistent in orientation, refresher courses and seminars etc. An effective teacher educator can prepare future quality teachers (Tamilselvi, 2010).

It is admitted in Global Monitoring Report (2008) that the inevitable role of teachers to fulfill the goal of Education for All by 2015; “The quantity, quality and distribution of the teaching workforce are critical factors for reaching the EFA goals. In terms of quantity over 18 million additional teachers are needed to meet the Universal Primary Education goal alone by 2015” (p.8).

Ali (2011) evaluated that globally teacher education has become central fact in educational reforms. Developed countries strengthened own teacher education for attaining quality education by focusing research on teacher learning and developments. Many countries changed their policies and teacher training system with help of research.

Aspects of Teacher Education

Miller and Osinski (1996; 2002) stated that designing training and development program is a systematic process that can be assembled into five parts: needs assessment, instructional objectives, design, implementation and evaluation. Needs assessment of all training programs make them effective and efficient program. The training manager must define the “who, what, when, where, why and how of training” before starting of any training. To fulfill this gap, the training manager must analyze as much information as possible about the following:

• Organization and its goals and objectives.

• Jobs and related tasks that need to be learned.

• Competencies and skills that are need to perform the job.

• Individuals who are to be trained.

Government of Pakistan (2011) analyzed, teacher education enables teachers to perform their task effectively in the school and classroom with support of the knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and skills they require. Teacher education is often divided into:

i) Initial teacher training/education (a pre-service course before entering the classroom as a fully responsible teacher);

ii) Induction (the process of providing training and support during the first few years of teaching or the first year in a particular school);

iii) Teacher development or continuing professional development (CPD) (an in-service process for practicing teachers).

The horizon of education has extended due to new vision of teacher education through research studies all over the world. Teacher education is becoming more strengthened with use of technology (GoP, 2011).

Types of Training

There are three types of training, pre-designed training, formal training and distance training. Pre-designed training is provided in teacher education institutes, colleges and universities. Formal training is usually conducted to polish skill and proficiency in job performance. Distance training is directed through video tapes, electronic or print material without contact with tutor (Khatoon, 2008).

Halim and Ali (1997) discussed that training is broadly categorized in two types: pre-service training and in-service training. Pre-service training is provided by formal institutions with defined curriculum and duration to offer a formal diploma or degree (bachelor or master level). In-service training is directed by organizations from time to time for improvement of performance and skills of employees. In-service training can be categorized into five different types:

Induction or orientation training.

After employment, Induction training is provided immediately to introduce the new extension staff members to their positions.

Foundation training.

Foundation training is in-service training. Newly recruit personnel have to take it. This training is usually provided at an early stage of service life and essential to strengthen the foundation of service career.

On-the-job training.

The superior officer or the subject-matter specialists give on-the-job training called ad-hoc or regularly scheduled training to the subordinate field staff, such as fortnightly training. This training generally focuses on problems or technology and may include formal presentations, informal discussion, and opportunities to try out new skills and knowledge in the field.

Refresher or maintenance training.

The incumbents update and maintain the specialized subject-matter knowledge through refresher or maintenance. Refresher training helps employees to use their knowledge and experience in better way. Maintenance or refresher training usually provides new information and new methods, as well as review of older materials according to context.

Career development training.

This type of in-service training is designed to upgrade the knowledge, skills, and ability of employees to help them assume greater responsibility in higher positions. The training is arranged departmentally for successful extension workers, at all levels, for their own continuing education and professional development.

Malone (1984, p.216) stated that “career development is the act of acquiring information and resources that enables one to plan a program of lifelong learning related to his or her work life.” Memon, Joubish and Khurrum (2010) mentioned that the administration of teacher training in Pakistan is provincial responsibility. However, curriculum wing at federal level is also responsible for teacher education institutions. Curriculum Boards and Extension Centers are responsible for in-service training. Government Colleges for Elementary Teachers (GCETs) direct the training of primary school teachers under the supervision of DSD. In addition, the provinces have assigned in-service training to one or more GCETs. There are three different types of in-service training to teacher:

In-service training of untrained staff through full-time crash programs of three months duration provided by the government.

Short term refresher courses for those already teaching provided by the government.

Limited private sector initiatives (short as well as medium term).

Different donor-funded projects directed towards in-service training of government teachers.

Models of Teaching and Training

Teaching is the way of establishment or design of such environment in which learners could learn. Model of teaching is picture of that learning setting including teacher attitude towards learners. Models of teaching are helpful in achieving objectives, curriculum and in building learner’s behavior. Taba (1966) and many others consider that using of teaching methodology is art of teaching and models of teaching works as bridge to attain learning objectives. Inductive thinking is the ability to explore new concepts and establish relationship in set data. Therefore inductive thinking models are widely used in curriculum area and all ages of learners. The model was presented recently by Joyce and Calhoun (1996; 1998), and Joyce, Hrycauk, and Calhoun (2001) to accelerate learners ability to learn. Jerome Burner, Goodnow and Austin (1967) and variation by Lighthall and Joyce presented “Concept Attainment Model” close to inductive thinking to provide resourceful method for giving structured concepts at all ages of students. Schwab (1965), Parker and Offer (1987) and Greenwald (2001) studied “Scientific Inquiry Model” to introduce Biological Science Curriculum Study to children. David Ausubel (1963) presented “Advance Organizers Model” for students of every age to enable them in developing intellectual structure regarding provided material (Joyce et al, 2009).

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The members of the Holmes Partnership presented “Benedum Collaborative Model” for teacher education in 1989, for the progress of West Virginia University. Holmes Partnership is a nationwide group of more than 100 research institutions. Benedum Collaborative Model was presented to change the scenario of public schools for the betterment of education. The reforms were planned to restructure of teacher education, professionals, to fulfill the gap between research and training (West Virginia University, 2006).

According to Gaible and Burns (2005) Teacher Professional Development (TPD) can be divided into three broad categories:

Standardized TPD.

Standardized teacher professional development is the most centralized approach. The best used to circulate information and skills among large teacher populations.

Site-based TPD.

Site-based teacher profession development requires thorough learning by groups of teachers in a school or region which provides support for long-term changes in instructional methods

Self-directed TPD.

Self-directed learning, sometimes initiated at the learner’s preference, using available resources that may include computers and the Internet.

Teacher training is a systematic process lead by clearly defined objectives. Teacher training can be provided through seminars, workshops, subject based knowledge and class room management. In many countries it is school based activity to enhance performance. In-service teacher usually preoccupied with their duties therefore training programs are conducted in vocations with incentives to make it attractive.

In Pakistan, trained teachers are available in private sector whereas public schools need to train teachers for high literacy rate and physical, cognitive, social, moral and emotional development of the learners. Ministry of Education developed Teacher Resource Center (TRC) and circulated curriculum of Early Childhood Education (ECE) as well as teacher training material for the guidance of kachi class (pre nursery) teachers in 2003. ECE curriculum is revised in 2007 (Sindh Education Foundation [SEF], 2010).

Lucas (1997) cited,

“It is easily assumed that the main fault with traditional teacher-training program was its briefness. Thus the cause for the reported poor quality of teaching was shifted from the nature of training which candidates received to the shortness of the training program.” (George Count. p.67)

Teacher Education in 21st Century

According to the publication by Organization for Economic Cooperation and

Development (OECD, 2011), “Preparing Teachers and Developing School Leaders for the 21st Century”, many nations around the world have changed own polices and strategies in education, areas of curriculum, teaching and assessment for preparing all children to face the high educational demands of life and profession in the 21st century.

What are the skills that young people demand in this rapidly changing world and what competencies do teachers need to effectively teach those skills? What can teacher preparation and continuing professional development do to prepare graduates to teach well in a 21st century classroom? What are the different roles and responsibilities of 21st century school leaders and how do countries succeed in developing these leaders? (OECD, 2011, p.3)

Australia introduced the National Professional Standard for Principals in July 2011; it was based on three requirements for school leadership: knowledge, understanding, personal as well as social qualities and communication skills. These were reported five areas of professional training: teaching learning process, enhance own and others’ development, improvement, innovation and change, school management and engage community (Australian Institute for School Leadership, 2011).

Government of Pakistan developed The National Plan of Action (NPA) to fulfill the international commitment in the Dakar Framework (2000) for Action, Education For All (EFA). NPA covers all the dimensions of EFA and is created on Dakar Goals and Objectives. NPA is based on Education Policy (1998-2010). The Education Sector Reforms (2001-05) was developed as action plan. Education Sector Reforms (ESR) aimed at the development of education sector as a whole, with special focus on EFA, served as a foundation for the NPA.

Quality education requires motivated and competent teachers at all levels. It is recommended in NPA that the qualification of teachers will be enhanced at all levels. Teacher training institutions will be effective to ensure output. The in-service teachers will be trained for professional development. Management training will be fixed for all future administrators of education from secondary school levels to higher education levels. Awards and medals will be given to hardworking and devoted teachers. The District Government (District Literacy Cells) will develop the curriculum and contents for the training of teachers and other field representatives, in collaboration with different agencies. Courses for training of Master Trainers and key employees will be held at national and provincial levels whereas the Master Trainers will train teachers at regional level (GoP, 2003).

International Practices of In-service Teacher Training

In-service teacher training is essential part for promoting quality of education in all over the world. Some countries conduct training program during school timing, or some after school hours. Whereas some countries arrange teacher training programs on weekend or during summer vocations.

Pre-service and in-service teacher training in United Kingdom.

Department for Education and Skill (DfES) is responsible for education and training in UK under Secretary of State of Education under rule of British Government. Teacher Training Agency (TTA) is legislative public body whose members are appointed by Secretary of State of Education which is accountable for initial teacher training, funding for schools, excellence of curriculum and management of training. There are two types of teachers’ trainings conducted in UK. One is pre-service teacher education and other is in-service teacher training. Pre-service teacher education and training is provided in recognized campuses whereas in-service teacher training is school based. In-service teacher training is engaged on daily practices, assessment, and mastery on content and behavioral change (Bayrakci, 2009).

Pre-service and in-service teacher training in Turkey.

In-service training activities were planned and approved by the Department of In-Service Training in the Ministry of National Education till 1993. National Education Directorates prepared annual in-service training in all provinces at national and local level for the improvement of quantity of training courses and quality of training activities for promoting educational administration and teaching staff (Bayrakci, 2009).

Teacher training in Japan.

In Japan, teacher trainings are more practical and based on daily education practices, problem solving, and understanding of curriculum and Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Ministry of Education is providing in-service training at national, prefectural (large area of local/self-governing unit), municipal and school level. Ministry also sends 5000 teachers abroad for getting training every year. Basic training is specified to all staff along head of school according to their experience every year. Specialized training is focused towards specific subject or subject area according to the interest of teachers and they are free to avail it. In addition, various lectures and workshops are provided by educational organization (Bayrakci, 2009).

Teacher training in India.

In India, in-service teacher training program is presented Kothari Commission (1964-66) and in the Chattopadhyay Commission (1983-85) for the professional development of teachers with renewal their understanding of the subject they teach and new challenges of teaching profession. All creativities were input like renewal of curriculum, in-service teacher education and implementation with involvement of public and non-formal schools with help of in-service teachers and NGOs. In several states, school clusters were created to inter-link at primary, middle, high level and delivered a structure of collaboration between teachers and professional efforts. The District Primary Education Program (DPEP, 1995-2003) setup the structure of block and cluster resource centers with instructions to provide in-service training primary school teachers to new, child-centered pedagogic methods and school based support to teachers. The Sarva Siksha Abhiyan (SSA, 2003) is the project by Govt. of India also focused on continuous teacher education with 20 days training in every year and achieving Universalization of Elementary Education in time bound manner. Teachers have involvement in academic activities, in meetings to discuss professional development, text books preparation, preparation of training modules and have chance to work in blocks and cluster centers as well as contribute to training as resource person. They are also associated in policy formulating committees and openly working inside and outside school for children (Aggarwal, 2010).

Teacher Education in Pakistan

The education system of Pakistan is functioning in these categories i.e. Primary, Middle, High, Higher Secondary, Inter Colleges, Degree Colleges, Technical and Vocational Institutions, Teacher Training Institutions, Non-Formal Basic Education, Deeni Madaris, and Universities.

The education system of Pakistan is involved of 270,825 institutions and is assisting 40,926,661 students with the help of 1,507,100 teachers. There are 194,151 public institutions and 76,674 private institutions in Pakistan. The total enrolment of students at teacher training institutes is 0.679 million of which 0.674 million (99%) students are enroll in public teacher training institutions whereas 0.005 million (1%) are in private sector. The total male students enroll in teacher training institutes are 0.451 million (66%), whereas 0.228 million (34%) female students are enroll. There are 3,620 teachers in teacher training institutions, out of which 3,343 (92%) are in public sector whereas 277 (8%) are in private secto


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