Taylor's and Fayol's Principles of Management
|✅ Paper Type: Free Essay||✅ Subject: Management|
|✅ Wordcount: 1987 words||✅ Published: 2nd Oct 2017|
In 1909, Taylor introduced “The Principles of Scientific Management.” In this theory, he proposed that by optimizing and simplifying jobs, productivity would increase. Taylor also believe that all workers were motivated by wages, so he published the idea of “fair payment with a fair work.” In other words, if a worker didn’t complete their task, he didn’t deserve to be paid as much as another worker who was highly productive. Taylor is a mechanical engineer, he tried to improve industrial efficiency. Taylor is considered as the father of scientific management, he was the first well-known management consultant and director of the company. This theory is just a slight way, because it applies only to the factory. Majority of this theory is on between workers and machines.
Taylor’s scientific management consisted of four principles:
First “They developed a science for each element of a person’s work, the rule of thumb is to replace the old way.” This principle tell us that the manager needs to simple habit and general knowledge, and instead use the scientific approach to study work and determine the most efficient way to complete specific tasks.
Second ” They scientifically select and then train, teach, and develop workers, while in the past, he chose his own work and training the best he can.” We can understand this theory as not simply random work is assigned to employees, based on matching workers’ skills and enthusiasm for work, and develop their work at maximum efficiency.
Thirdly they heartily cooperate with the men so as to ensure all of the work being done in accordance with the principles of the science which has been developed. This principle shows that the manager needs to supervise staff performance, and provide direction and oversight to ensure that the most effective way to use on their work.
Fourth. “There is a work of almost equal division of responsibilities between management and workers. Management to take over all the work, they are better fit than the workers, and in the past, almost all of the work and responsibility, most men were thrown out by the.” Assignments between management and workers, the manger spend time planning and training, make sure that employees re able to perform their complete their duties with their maximum effectively.
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Initially, the cause of science and technology project management is used. This is due to the fact that, Taylor, its inventor, is concerned that these industries. But then operate the technology attracted the attention of other businesses as well. Principles of scientific management can be applied to all types of organizations, including both men and materials to carry out effective management. Scientific management techniques can be used by all economic and social organizations can effectively use. We can conclude that the scope of scientific management is very wide and that is why Taylor himself emphasised that “the same principle can be applied with equal force to all social activities to the management of our homes; the management of the business of our tradesmen, large and small, of our churches, of our philanthropic institutions, our Universities and our Governmental departments.”
Under the Taylor’s theory, it has both advantage and disadvantage. The advantages of this theory is that the conditions of management are clearly defined, cause of the manager’s job become more easier. Secondly this theory will improve the efficiency of the employees. On the other hand, Taylor’s theory also have disadvantage which are this theory is comparing the performance with each other, it will lead to discontented. Secondly this theory without considering the needs and requirements of the employees, to treat them as machines.
Henri Fayol was born in Istanbul in 1841 when he was 19 years old, he started as an engineer at a major mining company in France. He eventually became a director, but this time the mining company employs over 1000 people in the time. Over the years, he began to develop Fayol considered the 14 most important principle management. Essentially, it explains how managers should organize and interact with staff.
Fayol was developed 14 principles of management in order to help managers manage their affairs more effectively. Today, these principles are still use but are often interpreted differently. These fourteen principles include:
- Division of work- when employees are more professional, output can be increased caused by their increasingly skilled and high efficiency.
- Delegation of Authority- Managers must have the right to give orders, but they also must keep in mind, and authority from responsibility.
- Discipline- Discipline must adhere to the organization, but the situation may different.
- Chain of commands- Employees should have one and only one direct supervisor but one manager may have many employers.
- Congenial workplace- Team has the same target should work under the guidance of a manager by planning. This will ensure proper coordination of movement.
- Interrelation between individual interests and common organizational goals- A benefit of employees should not be allowed to become more important than the group, includes the management staff.
- Compensation package- Employee satisfaction depends on everyone equitable remuneration. This includes financial and non-financial compensation.
- Centralization- This principle refers to the closeness of the staff of the decision making process. Its goal is to provide an appropriate balance is very important.
- Scalar chains- employees should know that their standing levels of the organization, or the command
- Order- Workplace and facilities must be keep cleaning, tidy and safe employees. Everything should have its own position.
- Equity- Managers should be fair to staff at all times, both maintaining discipline as necessary and acting with kindness where appropriate.
- Job Guarantee- managers should strive to reduce staff turnover. Talent planning should be a priority.
- Initiatives- Employees should be given the necessary level of freedom, establishment and implementation plans.
- Team-Spirit- Organizations should strive to promote team spirit and solidarity.
In additional, Fayol also has six primary functions of management, which go hand in hand with the Principles, which are Forecasting. Planning, Organizing, Commanding, Coordinating, And Controlling.
Fayor is the father of management principles, because he set up the principle of modern management. It has a macro point of view, focusing on management, applicable to the basic principles of management in various fields.
The Fayol’s philosophy has advantages. First, in addition to workers’ division of work, work should be divided, so that workers specializing in a particular job, but also improve the work efficiency. Secondly, there should be a balance of power and responsibilities between management and workers. In addition, he stressed that all staff fairness, kindness and justice organizations. By the action, it promotes a friendly atmosphere between superiors and subordinates. Material is disposed of ideas that he came all should be properly placed, and where everything should be. Loyalty and dedication to the members of solidarity organizations. If employees are loyal, dedicated their time to improve the organization’s management also will be looking for afters so their employees welfare and well-being. However, there are some shortcomings in Fayol theory. The drawback is that he is divided into six categories are divided into five business activities and management functions and implement these features into fourteen principles. Another is that when it comes to equity, where workers receive fair and kind to work has become a regular. It also did not pay enough attention to workers. Managers ordered material without consulting staff responsible for this work. Without proper consultation is doing. Some theorists call this inconsistency, very open policy, lack of organization to use.
Both of two person have contributed to the development of management science. In these two pioneers in the field of management science contributions were reviewed for “Taylor and Fayol manage theory job, of course, especially complementary. They have achieved a key staff and management at all levels of the problem is personal success, whether it is the application of scientific methods to this problem, Taylor’s work is mainly from the operational level, from the bottom up, while Fayol focused on the general manager and work down, but they are very different careers, “a kind of expression. They are different from each other in the following aspects: – Taylor looked at the management, from a regulatory point of view and trying to improve the management level of efficiency. He developed the theory of moving upwards. On the other hand, Fayol senior management level down analysis and management. Therefore, Fayol can afford a wider field of vision than Taylor. Taylor said his concept of “scientific management”, while Fayol describes his method is “the general theory of management.”
Taylor’s main purpose – to improve labor productivity and eliminate all types of waste through standardization work and tools. Fayol trying to develop a general theory of management, and stressed the need for teaching management theory.
Taylor to focus on the fact that the attention of management and his principles are applicable to the workshop. But Fayol general principles of centralized management and administration wheel can also apply at all.
Similar – both emphasize mutual cooperation between employment and employees.
Areas of human activity Fayol theory compare to Taylor’s theory more widely used, but Taylor’s concept has undergone great changes in the impact of modern development, but the principles of management Fayol withstood the test of time and still be accepted as management theory core.
According to psychologists, Taylor’s research has the following disadvantages: – Ignore the human factor – think they are machines.
Ignoring the demands of humanity, hopes and aspirations. Separation of planning and doing. Dissatisfaction compare performance with others. Not the best way to solve the problem of scientific management is not an optimal way.
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