Introduction of Marks and Spencer
In 1998, Marks and Spencer became the first British retailer to make a pre- tax profit over £1 billion, but a few years later it plunged into a crisis which lasted for several years. They can’t meet the customer expectations and need longer lead time on the production. However, after changing their company CEO, Marks and Spencer started improve due to a substantial number of changes in operation management. It included dynamic and cheaper supply chain, improve the products design and quality, and good identification and service of market segments.
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1.1 The identification of different customer needs on M&S clothing ranges
Marks and Spencer’s (M&S) has divided into three types of clothing ranges that are Perfect and Classic range, the Autograph range, and he Per Una range. Each range has been developed to a different target segment customer of the women clothing market. Marks and Spencer must identify what their customer needs to meet their customer expectations and improve the products. Customers will tend to judge the products and services according to their judgement to compare the price, quality, promotions, values, and pre and post services together with competitors to determine which brand they like. Marks and Spencer using the demographic segmentation to identify what their customer needs. Mark and Spencer target their customers by age, gender, income, social class, and the others. This is because customers will change their needs and wants anytime. So that, Marks and Spencer should be aware this issue occurs.
1.2 Customer Needs
Customer needs is to meet the customer expectations or customer needs and wants. We need to do the market research to find out what products the customer likes and identifies emerging opportunities (No author, 2011). The products can influence the customer needs and wants such as the price, location, design, culture, and the others.
1.3 Perfect and Classic Ranges
The Perfect and Classic ranges are aimed to serve the core customers of Marks and Spencer. Marks and Spencer core customers are target under 35 to 55 year old men and women. Perfect collection is designed the clothing in basic and simple way and they include plain, white shirts, black roll-neck sweaters and jeans. The clothing must be machine washable, non-iron, and tumble-dry friendly for the busy lifestyle customers. These range customers who is looking for appreciate practical, good quality, and value at reasonable priced. Besides, the design must be timeless that means the design not outdated from time to time. The Classic Collection was aimed at more mature customer and tends to serve into different style such as smart, elegant, and confident style for their customers. The designs for these ranges are limited and ensure the customers can find their suitable clothes.
1.3.1 Age and Gender
Perfect and Classic Range in Marks and Spencer their core customers are target under 33 to 55 year men and women. Marks and Spencer must determine these range customers what are their age and gender before designing the clothes. This is because easier for the designer designing the clothes.
1.3.2 Income and Social Class
Income and social class can show a customer buying behavior. As we can see, Perfect and Classic range customers their income and social class not so high. Therefore, they required appreciate practical, good quality, and value at reasonable priced. Marks and Spencer must meet their customer expectations.
1.4 Autograph Range
The Autograph range was launched in the spring and summer in year 2000 and it is a new seasonal range. This range is to bring cutting-edge design to wider the audience within a unique environment. These range designs were done by Julien Macdonald, Philip Treacy, and Sonja Nuttall who are the recruiting best designers in Marks and Spencer. This design was developed a range of clothes, men and women accessories. It is providing a more up-market range of clothes for Marks and Spencer core market. Autograph range brings the top designer collection to Market and Spencer customers at high street prices, within a designer boutique environment. However, in the autograph range limited to spring and summer range with merely 60 colours style every season. Autograph range designs a bit like formal wear or elegant clothing. For example, the elegant clothing can wear to work or shopping.
1.4.1 Income and Social Class
As we know, Marks and Spencer Autograph range products are more expensive. Their customers are willing to spend their money to purchase the luxury products. It shown that, Autograph range customers have high income and high social class.
1.5 Per Una Range
Per Una range was launched on 28 September 2001. Per Una range target customers were the fashion-conscious women aged between 25 to 35 year old, sizes 8-18. This collection is providing the high quality materials and the designs are the latest trends design. Besides, the products of Per Una range sold under limited edition, which makes the products unique in the market. Besides that, the prices were 10% more expensive than other Marks and Spencer ranges.
1.5.1 Age and Gender
For age and gender in Per Una range, Marks and Spencer their target customers are under the aged between 25 to 35 fashion-conscious young lady. Around this aged ladies like to buy the trendy or fashion clothes especially the limited edition because it’s very unique and small quantity in the market. So, the Marks and Spencer designer must identify their age range to design the limited edition clothing for the customers.
1.5.2 Income and Social Class
In the new generation, most of the young ladies liked to show how rich they are or their social level. Per Una range are very suitable for the ladies who like to buy the trendy or fashion clothes especially limited edition to show out their social level and how rich they are.
Identification and explanation of order winners and qualifiers
In Marks and Spencer, they are very clear on their order winners as well as their order qualifier. Marks and Spencer as the top retailer in UK, the order winners and order qualifier for each range are identified. This can make the customers perceived the clothing produced by Marks and Spencer is high quality and competitive prices meet their customer expectations. In Marks and Spencer, each range clothing has different order winners and order qualifier to target different customers in UK.
2.1 Order Winners
Order winners are those competitive characteristics that cause a firm’s customers to choose that firm’s goods and services over those of its competitors. It can be considered to be competitive advantage for the firm. It usually focuses on rarely more than two of the following strategic initiative. It included price or cost, delivery speed, delivery reliability, quality, product design, flexibility, brand image, and after-market service (No author, 2008).
2.2 Order Qualifier
Order qualifiers are those competitive characteristics that a firm must show to be viable competitor in the marketplace (No author, 2008).
The firm is responsible for providing the order winners and order qualifier that enable the products to win orders in the marketplace. This process must start with the corporate strategy and help the firm to continue operating or to wins the customer’s business (Hill, 2000).
The order winners and qualifiers are both specific in market and time. They work in different combinations such as different market and different target customers. Therefore, the customer needs are the key factor that influence the order winners and order qualifiers principle makeover (Nemetz-Mills, 2001).
2.3 The correlation and influences of order winners and qualifiers in M&S clothing ranges.
Perfect and Classic Ranges
Per Una Ranges
The range is limited to its classical style and ‘return to basics’ trend
The range is based on designer wear trend and available at selected boutique store
The range is focused on high quality and fashion trend design
The design standardise with multifunctional clothing
The design is seasonal range and focus on spring and summer
The design of its product is latest trend and changes monthly
Value at reasonable pricing
High street pricing
High street style at affordable pricing, 10% more expensive than other M&S ranges
High quality and functional clothing
High quality, based on the summer and spring trends
High quality, limited edition and trend designs
Sales Volume [SKU]
Limited and available at the selected boutique store
Very small volume and limited edition
The reliability of its product functional from wash to tumble-dry
High quality and clothing design ranges based on seasonal trends
The design based on its design and appearance and its limited edition trends
It focusing for quality and value at reasonable pricing
It focusing on its competitive high street pricing of it clothing range
Affordable price and high quality
The operations prioritised on its clothes cost
The operations prioritised on its clothes quality
The operations prioritised on its rapid and flexibility changes of it clothes trends
2.4 Perfect and Classic Ranges
Perfect and Classic ranges are emphasise to standard design that mean the fashion is not the out-dated design or timelessness design. Perfect Collection customer who is looking for appreciate practical, good quality, and value at reasonable priced. This collection is carrying on Marks and Spencer tradition of reliability and buying experience and the sourcing is more low cost producers. Classic Collection is focusing on more mature customers. The design for these ranges are timeless and not just the latest fashion. It is to ensure the customers can find the suitable products.
2.5 Autograph Range
The Autograph range is design the clothing on seasonal range that are spring and summer. Besides, it is offering exclusive collection of products on high street prices. The OWC comprises of the product more stylish, designer boutique, service package, store layout, and high street pricing. Moreover, quality control (QC) is very important to control the product quality. Marks and Spencer has obtained the products for the suppliers who have strengths in product or material development (Harrison & Pavitt, 2003).
2.6 Per Una Range
Per Una range is aimed to serve the target customers aged between 25 to 35 year old women who are fashion- conscious. This collection was provided the high quality materials, latest trends, individual cuts, fanatical attention to detail, and ease of shopping (Harrison & Pavitt, 2003). Besides, the collection was sold under limited edition and the design changes in monthly. So that, the prices was 10% more expensive than other M&S ranges. The operations prioritised on its rapid and flexibility changes of it clothes trends.
Polar Diagram approach assessment and comparisons of different
operations performance in M&S clothing ranges.
3.1 Polar Diagram Tabulation Table
Perfect and Classic Ranges
Per Una Ranges
The polar diagram above represented the five performance objectives of Marks and Spencer. Marks and Spencer must know the different of the clothing ranges and analyse it.
3.2 Perfect and Classic Ranges
Perfect and Classic range should emphasis on flexibility, and speed because it get the highest scored in polar diagram.
Flexibility means that Marks and Spencer able to innovate the product and design the latest trends. This is because Perfect and Classic collection can be more fashion.
Speed means the rate of response and delivers on time to the customers. It shows that how Marks and Spencer organisation communicate with the customers. From the polar diagram above, Perfect and Classic ranges get the highest scored in terms of speed. This is because all the products design are returns into simple and basics. So, the produces and deliver time will not be longer.
3.3 Autograph Range
Marks and Spencer should look into the quality to enable the Autograph range can compete in high street market.
Good quality is essential to maintain Marks and Spencer brands image. From the polar diagram above, Autograph and Per Una ranges get the highest scored in quality. It is due to Marks and Spencer has high quality control.
3.4 Per Una Range
Marks and Spencer should emphasis on dependability and cost in Per Una range because it is the limited edition and the prices more expensive that other ranges.
Dependability refers to the reliability of the products. In Per Una range, it scored top among other ranges. The design is latest trends and limited edition and reliability products. In this range, Marks and Spencer targeted the fashion-conscious young women between 25 to 35 years old.
In this area, Per Una range get the highest scored among other ranges. This is because these range design are limited edition, changes monthly and need to produce in high quality. Therefore, the production cost will more expensive than other ranges.
4.1 Appendix A – Logo Company and Products Logo
– Previous Marks and Spencer Logo – New Marks and Spencer Logo
presented in 2004
– Per Una’s logo, three heart shapes
4.2 Appendix B – Three Ranges Clothing
4.2.1 Classic Collection
– Classic Collection Pure Cotton Swirl – Classic Collection Floral Border
Neckline Jersey Top Dress with Scarf
– Classic Collection Large Collar – Classic Collection Front Belt Pull
Ruched Jacket On Trousers
4.2.2 Autograph Range
– Autograph Shower Resistant Trench – Autograph Exclusive Pure Silk Floral
Coat with Belt Dress with Belt
– Autograph Cotton Rich Crochet – Autograph Pure Silk Paisley Print
Lace Waistcoat Top
4.2.3 Per Una Range
– Per Una Pure Linen Bold Stripe – Per Una Linen Blend Floral
Prom Dress Appliqué Shift Dress
– Per Una Crossover V-Neck Zebra – Per Una Pure Cotton Tie Dye
Print dress Camisole Top
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