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Emotional Branding Emotional Perception Marketing Essay

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Marketing
Wordcount: 5412 words Published: 1st Jan 2015

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This section will demonstrate the main research findings obtained from the methods of investigation explained in the previous section. It brings out the relationship between Light, emotions, colours and brands giving a brief description about sensory and emotional perception. The section also gives the main insights and findings of the Expert interview and focus group. The formulated case studies the sum up the section.

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Emotion has been defined as a 'sudden trouble, transient agitation caused by an acute experience of fear, surprise, joy, etc.' (Larousse Dictionary, 1990), or a 'mental feeling or affection (e.g. pain, desire, hope, etc.) as distinct from cognitions or volitions' (Oxford English Dictionary, 1987). Emotion is usually defined in relation to Anger, Love, Fear, Disgust, Sadness and Surprise. There is no literature on the definition of Emotion (Canabac M., 2001).

Kevin Roberts (2005) expresses 'Humans are powered by emotions.' He distinguishes emotions into primary and secondary emotions. The basic primary emotions are Joy, Sorrow, Anger, Fear, Surprise and Disgust. There are a few emotions which are a bit more complex than the primary emotions called the secondary emotions which are Love, Guilt, Shame, Pride, Envy and Jealousy. Love of all the emotions is the most fundamental for brand enhancement (Roberts K., 2005, pg.45). However, how can the brand owners make the consumers feel the emotion of Love? As Roberts suggests, this could be done by Innovation, Building respect, Responsibility and Great design. Hence, to create any emotion we need to first understand what creates emotions.

When we see a picture of a loved one we feel happy, smelling a lousy smell makes us feel disgusted, getting fired from work makes us angry, watching a horror movies induces the feeling of fear. These emotions are induced with the perceived sense of objects attached to them. For example, the emotion of fear when watching a horror movie, it is the perception of the horror movie that makes the emotion fear. Hence we can state, perceptions causes emotions.

What is perception? As defined in Oxford Dictionary 2012 Perception is 'the ability to see, hear, or become aware of something through the senses,' 'the way in which something is regarded, understood, or interpreted' 'intuitive understanding and insight'.

Usually, we interpret or have a sense about a thing even before seeing it. Before even knowing the details we form an image of the object linking it with our previous perceptions (Maurice Lévy, 2005). We often link the perceptions of a brand to brand identity. The difference is made when we feel good about a brand and get a positive perception. The brand perception is necessary to communicate brand values and brand attributes.

Perception plays an important role in creating emotions. Hence, it also proves to be an important factor in communicating emotionally to the consumers or creating a feeling of love or any other emotion. As Roberts (2005) explains senses are the fast track of emotions. Hence, we can also create emotions with sensory perceptions.


As Roberts quotes, Human beings are powered by emotions'. When a consumer feels emotionally connected with the brand, it builds a bridge of trust between the brand and the consumer. Marc Gobe expresses, 'Over the past decade emotional branding has emerged as a highly influential brand management paradigm.' Emotional branding is a consumer centric, rational and story driven approach to forging deep and enduring effective bonds between the brand and the consumer. (Roberts, 2005)

"The savviest marketers understand that successful products appeal to the heart, not the mind" (Bloomsberg Business Week, 2007)


We often have a habit of sniffing milk before drinking, smelling the food before eating it. Obliviously, senses are the most important factor and play a major role in our lives. We experience, we feel, we perceive, we understand, we love through our senses. Senses are Direct, Proactive, Immediate, and Tough to fool and even tough to override. (Roberts, 2005) We gather information through senses. It's our senses that remind us of our existence, reminds us of how we feel and who we are.

Sensory branding is a powerful way that can have an immediate impact on consumers' mind. When brands communicate with consumers via sensorial experiences brands indulge in sensory branding. The five senses sight, sound, touch, smell and feel are known to have a prompt effect on consumers' minds. Sensory branding creates an emotional connection with the consumers. Martin Lindstrom communicates his similar thoughts on sensory branding in Brand sense (2005).

Lippincott, a leading design and brand strategy consultancy define sensory branding as "Sensory branding is an emerging business discipline that applies analytical techniques to amalgamate the use of sensory stimuli such as scent, sound, texture, sight and taste in order to develop strong brands that are more memorable of consumers than conventional visual branding techniques alone."

The five senses are of utmost importance to us. We understand their importance only when one of them is missing. We can never image watching a movie with absolutely no sound or eating any kind of food with no taste. These senses make us get involved with a certain thing they are attached with resulting in memories. Martin Lindstrom suggests his similar thoughts in Brand sense (2005). Martin Lindstrom voiced in Brand sense (2005), "Sensory branding lies on the premise that is a brand provides all of our senses with certain stimulus we can express our brand more profoundly and connect with it on a deeper emotional level." Therefore, we can say Sensory branding helps build the brand signature for a brand which would be linked with numerous brand experiences. The brands which indulge with sensory branding, they leave the consumer with an experience difficult to forget.

Martin Lindstrom voiced in Brand sense (2005), "Sensory branding lies on the premise that is a brand provides all of our senses with certain stimulus we can express our brand more profoundly and connect with it on a deeper emotional level." Therefore, we can say Sensory branding helps build the brand signature for a brand which would be linked with numerous brand experiences. The brands which indulge with sensory branding, they leave the consumer with an experience difficult to forget.

The Nokia ringtone (sound), The coke bottle (touch). The crunch of the Kellogg's cereals (sound), The scent of the Singapore airlines (Smell) are all the part of sensory branding which have added great remembrance value to these brands. These brands today are known by these elements. For example, the crunch of the Kellogg's cereal can be recognized by the consumer even at a hotel breakfast table where they are directly served the cereal without showing the cereal box. The sound of this crunch was branded by Kellogg's.

"The ultimate goal in sensory branding is to create a strong positive and long-lasting bond between brand and consumer so the consumer will return to the brand repeatedly while barely noticing the competing products."(Lindstorm M., 2005)

'Sight is a wonder. Our eyes absorb an incredible amount of information, and they do it fast. Little wonder that is processing all this information takes up something like two third of our cerebral cortex.'(Roberts, 2005)

We humans know the language of images rather than words. We always draw on image of a thing we describe. If I describe about a brand coca cola to a friend; the person will immediately draw an image of the product. The colours red and white would flash in his mind. Also the visual signature quality of Burberry is its pattern. Hearing about the brand, the signature pattern of Burberry flashes in our minds.

As read in earlier, Perception are immediate feelings through our senses. Light can stimulate consumers' emotional experience, as Light can offer perception as seen in the case of a candle light dinner (The important factor being light) or a warm evening spent besides the fireplace (the important factor being light). Consumers perceive brands in the emotions of Love, Respect, Honesty, and Happiness and so on. Innovative designs and sensorial experiences deliver brands message to the consumers. Light can act as a strong sensorial messenger that would act on the consumers' mind emotionally. This delivered message will arouse perceptions which will act as touch points in brand perception.


Coca-Cola, the leader of the soft drink market incorporated ergonomics in designing the Coke bottle. Due to the rise in the competition in the soft drink market, Coke wanted to launch a product which would have a very strong identity in the market.

The Coke glass bottle that was launched was so designed that any customer would recognize it through its 'touch'. The glass bottle till date (even if without the logo) proves to be a market leader and is recognized by every individual.

Singapore Airlines

Singapore Airline is one of the finest Aviation Company. It strives to be the leader in the Aviation Industry through its world class on board service and hospitality.

Except from its service and hospitality, Singapore Airlines is also known for its signature fragrance. Singapore Airlines incorporated the Stefan Floridans Waters' fragrance in its branding as a consumer touch point. From hot towels to the flight attendants all wear the trademark "Singapore Airline Fragrance." This pleasing scent in the flight pleases the consumer adding to it on board experience.By incorporating scent in branding, Singapore Airline has reached a different level in the Aviation Industry.


'Colour is a million-dollar business.' (Roberts K., 2005) Colours speak a language of perception. It is colour which is responsible for the image perception that is caused. If you describe about an encounter with a TIGER, the person hearing you will form an image of tiger with bright black and orange colour. Similarly, when talking about brands like 'Facebook' the BLUE coloured logo will flash in your mind or 'Orange' you would immediately think about the colour ORANGE, PINK for T-Mobile, YELLOW and RED for MC Donalds and so on.

Colours play a very important role in Branding. It is known to be the most powerful promotional tool. (Smarty A., 2008). Each and every colour has something to convey. Hence, I is very important for the brands to understand the colour theory and its meaning and effects on the consumers. For example, the colour RED signifies love, anger, danger, The colour WHITE signifies peace, serenity, sensuality, The colour colour BLACK signifies death, end, evil and so on. In Branding the meaning of theses colours changes a bit. RED stands for Power, Strength, Security, The colour WHITE signifies simplicity and purity, The colour BLUE signifies Security and trust, The colour GREEN signifies wealth and calmness, The colour YELLOW signifies optimism, The colour PINK signifies Romance, The colour ORANGE signifies cheerful and The colour BLACK signifies power.

The colour PINK is usually associated with brands in relation to Valentine's Day, feminine perfumes and so on. BLUE is the colour usually associated with website and brands with trust as their core value, example Skype, Facebook. The colour RED is used with brands which tend to be or are very powerful and come with an aim to rule market, example Yahoo, Airtel etc.

With multiple meanings of a single colour, colours tend to change mood and convey emotions. Each colour is associated to different meanings in different cultures. When brands globalize it is very important to understand the local culture of the place the brand is put up in. For example, H&M (a global fashion brand) localizes its brand store depending upon the place. This localization plays an important role in brand globalization as it gets the consumer to love the brand. When consumers see the refection of their culture in the brand the brand gains the respect from the consumer. For example; The brand strategy of Coke differs in every region. The brand campaign of Coke is localized in different languages in different regions. For example, The 'Open Happiness Campaign' of Coke was in a different language in North India as compared to South India. This localization and Globalization strategy of Coke has helped it grow every year and be one the most loved brands by the consumers.

Hence to follow this path of globalization and localization it is very important to understand the role of colours in different cultures as these cultures play a very important role in building brand perceptions. For example; the colour Orange in Asia is a positive and a spiritually enlightened colour whereas in the US it signifies road hazards and traffic delays (Mario De Bortoli, Jesús Maroto, 2001). Hence a wrong colour used can prove to have a negative effect on the brand.

Colours may also have adverse effect on different consumers depending upon their gender. Radeloff(1990) has found that women are more likely than men to have a favourite colour. For example; it is usually observed that men tend to give preference to bright colour over soft colours and women to soft colours over bright colours. Colour preferences also differ according to the age. Children aged 3-24 months tend to get attracted to bright things even though they do not have any knowledge of colours. This is seen as all the toys manufactured for kinds are usually bright ad flashy as these tend to amuse them.

Colours when associated with lights can also have adverse effects on consumers. Different coloured lighting if used in retail design can enhance or degrade the look of an object. For example; If a red coloured object is kept under red coloured light; the right value and beauty of the object is degraded by the light. Hence; the lighting used by the brands in retails store design should be designed correctly looking at the aspects of how to enhance a product with correct yet effective lighting.

With a numerous different associations of colour; Colour is known to be a critical factor in brand communication. Colours communicate brand values and emotions and hence play a very important role in branding.


The focus group was carried out with 5 participants. The main aim of the focus group was to study the consumer perception, response and behaviour in regards to brands and their relationship with light. The 5 participants participated enthusiastically and the focus group carried out brought forward the following outcomes:

Light conveys emotions and connects with people emotionally. This was seen when the participants were shown pictures of places and moments were light plays an important role such as a warm winter evening by the fireplace and a romantic candle light dinner.

As light is an underused and an overlooked element in branding; the use of Light in branding to convey emotions or messages can build extra ordinary experiences for the consumers. As seen in the case of Hollister Co. The consumers experience something new and this leads to long lasting remembrance value.

Light as we know enhances the atmosphere. Wrong or negative lighting can deliver negative messages if not designed effectively. This enhancement of atmosphere or a place by light adds the feel good factor. This if incorporated in brand retail design adds that feel good factor to the brand, which results in consumers spending more time in the brand store. When asked the consumers the factors that make them spend more time in a brand store, most of them replied the ambience. And hence, Light proves to be an important element in enhancing the ambience of a brand retail store.

Participants were shown pictures of extreme coloured lighting and were asked the emotion they feel from looking at the picture. They were then asked to relate those extreme coloured light pictures to the brands they could think of. Most of the participants could relate theses colours to brands. Hence we can say, Colours are responsible to build brand perception.


Expert interviews were mainly carried out via e-mail, skype or face to face. The main aim of the expert interview was to gain the in-depth practical knowledge of the branding as well as lighting industry. For this, four Lighting designers and one Brand expert was interviewed.

According to the lighting designers Light is a very strong emotional connector and has the ability to connect with consumers at a deeper emotional level resulting in longer lasting remembrance value.

Kevan Shaw (Lighting Designer) expresses ' As Light proves to be a strong connector and a communicator, Light can convey brand values and brand stories.

As Light is an unexplored brand element, Its incorporation in branding will bring out the uniqueness in the brand and will prove to be a differentiator. Hence according to Manav Bhargav (Light Designer) 'Light is an element that can add an important and a different aspect to branding.

When asked about the use of Light in Branding to the Brand Expert Hemant Sutar, he expressed 'As brands have extended the use of senses, but it possibly has to be deepen in certain areas. Light has the potential to be that sensory element as brands today aim to innovate and differentiate themselves from the other brands, this element will strive to achieve excellence.'

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As seen according to the results of the focus group and expert interviews; Light is an element with a high potential to a differentiator and an emotional connector for brands. Light has proven the impact of it power in various industries and fields such as Art and Architecture, Theatre and Branding. To understand the relation between them a few case studies were formulated.


As Paul Cezanne quotes' "A work of Art which did not begin in Emotion is not Art." Art and architecture portray and conveys emotions. A simple piece of art even a painting has an artists' feelings and emotions attached to it. Art and emotion go hand in hand. Light has always played an

Important role in the field of art and architecture. The historical monuments always have an element of Light attached to it. These light convey the mood and feel of the era these historical monuments belong to.


Amber palace is one of the oldest palaces in the midst of Rajasthan. Amber palace was built by Raja Man Sing in 1952 and proves to be one the historical monuments of India. The Light design for this was designed by the ace lighting designer from India Manav Bhargava. He expresses, "The light design of Amber Palace creates a haunting impression, as if the place has been deserted for years. Merely changing the blue to deep amber, immediately transforms the entire scene to signify a sunrise and metaphorically, a new beginning." Manav Bhargava explains, "There is a marble court outside the Sheesh Mahal (Palace of Mirrors). This is the Mughal style of architecture, which is about romance and poetry, so we wanted to create a fantasy like feeling. We proposed a moonlight effect experience for the visitors. The light are concealed so that the visitors wouldn't immediately know its artificial." (Light and Emotions, 2011)

The use of Light in Amber Palace has created the different emotions in the different parts of the palace. Only by the use of Light these emotions were successfully conveys to the visitor through their experience in the palace.


The Berlin Medical Society often known as the German Medical Association is a central organization of medical administration in Germany. The society aims and ensures good medical care of the population.

The Berlin Medical Society offers the employees to choose their own colour of light they want to work in. Micheal F. Rohde (L-Plan Lichtplanung, Berlin) expressed "People in the office of the Berlin Medical Society are able to choose their own colour. It is respecting the individualism of each person. That the person realized 'Ah, there is someone who's taking me seriously as an individual'.If you are taken seriously, you will bring better results, if you feel happy, you will be a better employee." (Light and Emotion, 2011, pg.163). This use of positive lighting makes people understand the importance and impact of light. Different coloured lighting have different effect on peoples' behavior. For example, red is the colour of love, angry, anxiety. White is the colour of peace and so on. The colour of the also affect as warm light and cool light. Red yellow orange are known as warm colours and blue, green and purple are cool colours. Berlin Medical society understands the impact of light and can see the results of peoples' work style and life style.


Stadion Center shopping mallin Austria uses this colour therapy in their shopping mall with the help of Lighting. Jurgen Hassler (Hassler Entertainment Architecture Make It Real) said "We are changing the colours every hour; for a winter morning, its warm, in the summer a bit cooler. I created a rhythm; warm, cold, very warm. And in the evening we make use of what we call entertainment colours." (Light and Emotion, 2011, Pg.117) This use of colour therapy communicates a sense of comfort to the people visiting the mall. The use of light in this context enhances the communication power.Lighting constitutes to be an important element to convey an extra ordinary experience.


The Apple Tree Garden in Sweden has glowing apples at night which give u feel of a dream. Martin Lupton (Light collective, UK) said "we buried some fiber optics in the ground and stuffed them into apples, and they just glowed. It was just like a fairy tale and I think people saw it for the emotion that it had" (Light and Emotion, pg. 173). This creative thinking does communicate emotionally with the people. The people who have visited this place would never forget the extravagant experience they had.


Lighting designer Carlos Fortes from Brazil designed the Lighting for Luzombra ('luz'= light, 'sombra' = shadow) a lamp showroom. The aim of the light design was to portray the kind of feelings, effects and atmosphere that light can create.

Carlos Fortes expresses, "When the wall was lit it looked like an embroidery pattern, an entanglement of lines and textures. You saw the shadows of nails on the wall rather than seeing the nails in perspective. I wanted to create the illusion of embroidery, a lacework. The lacework didn't exist, it was generated by the shadows ad empty spaces on the wall".

Lighting has another aspect and an element attached to it, the element shadow. Not only Light but the shadow created by the Light also conveys certain emotions. Shadow commutes the emotion of darkness and fear. Light and shadow together are create a great piece of art as designed by the lighting designer Carlos Fortes.


"Theatre Lighting isn't just an illusion. Its Design, Art, Emotion and Subtext." (Angela Mitchell) Theatre lighting portrays the exact emotion as the theatre artists. According to the experts in the theatre lighting industry, Theatre lighting is a big challenge as it involves great designs that form the right deception and convey the right emotion.

Theatre Lighting is a perfect blend of art, design and emotion. To understand in depth the relationship amongst each the following case studies were formulated.


The pyramids are amongst the wonders of the world are known to be greatest built structures ever. These massive structures were built by the ancient Egyptians to shelter and safeguard the Pharaoh's soul. It is one of the tourist attractions in the outskirts of Ciaro, Egypt. The beauty of this monument in the daylight and in the evening is completely different. (National Geaographic, 1996)

At night; the sound and the Light show at the pyramids entertains the visitors and tells a story of the pyramids- the facts, reasons and stories. This Light and show is not enacted by any actors or theatre artist, it is solely through lights that the spectators experience this spectacular show. The lights are designed such that it forms that right deception in the viewers' eyes where they actually see the pyramid move. This Light and sound show is in itself one the greatest examples where light design forms the right deception and conveys the emotion of the story behind these monuments. (Sound and Light, 2010)

The show is carried out in a theatre style seating arranges n midst of the Egyptian desserts. This theatre show brings out the ancient Egyptian history and reveals the secrets and the legends of that era through light and sound.


The Black Light theatre is a stage that incorporates darkness and florescent ultra violet illuminations to convey a fantasy, a dream like emotion and to create a WOW effect for the spectators. In the early days the Chinese used candle light silhouette to portray a black light theatre. This technique has also been used in villages in the early days to communicate government issues and critical issues as it draws audience involvement and interest. With the advent in technology and cinema, the black light theatre was born. (WOW, 2012)

WOW aims in creating an unmatchable experience. Only after viewing this show can a spectator explain the reason for its name 'WOW'. WOW creates a world where it gives a chance to the audience to feel like and dream like a child. Building emotions of love, nature and fantasy; this is build without dialogues incorporating sound and light.


Bristol's Balloon Fiesta is one the world class events organized in Bristol with an aim of promotion Bristol regionally. This event is held every year where numerous hot air balloons across UK become a part of it. This colourful fleet of hot air balloons attract thousands of visitors to Bristol every year. (Mail online, 2012)

Another aspect of this even is the 'Night glow' where these balloons are lit under the sparkling moon light. This show uses music and fire in the form of light and makes these balloons dance on the theme of the music. The fire used to ignite the hot air balloons is controlled in a manner which forms a deception in the visitors' mind about the dancing balloons. Night glow equally attracts visitors as this is the time where people dance, have fun and party to see this spectacular sight. The music played and the fire ignited it the numerous balloons creates a bubbly, lively, peppy and a cheerful environment for the visitors.


As read earlier, Light is branding is often functional. But, there are brands which have knowingly or unknowingly incorporated light design in branding. To attract consumers, brands need to propose a strategy which is a perfect blend of Art, Design and Emotions to build an unforgettable experience. To illustrate the incorporation of light design in branding the following case studies were formulated.


The London Olympics 2012 were held in the Olympic Park, London from 27th July to 12th August 2012. The Olympic games are International multi-sport event governed by the International Olympic Committee (IOC). The opening and the closing ceremony of the Olympic games are huge international events that people all around the world look forward to it.

Lighting designer for the London Olympics 2012 Patrick Woodroffe expressed Lighting design as creating magic. The London Olympics event was bigger than a concert. Partick expresses, "It was theatre, dancing, costumes and effects and it's all tied with the athletes coming in, it's their party." The light design in the opening and the closing ceremony created magic in the stadium. It was so designed that the audience were left mesmerized when they left the stadium. The emotions were truly conveyed. It portrayed the spirit of the Olympics tradition.


Harrods is a world famous departmental store owned by The royal family located in the heart of London. Harrods is recognized for its celebrity endorsed sales, food halls and green signature bags (BBC, 2010). With more than a million square feet of space, Harrods sells luxury and everyday goods across 330 departments. The store attracts more than 15million customers each year. (BBC, 2010)

Harrods is lit up as a palace at night. The origin of the lights is unknown but has a very positive effect on consumers' mind. Given a preference, consumers chose to visit Harrods at night. This light attracts the attention of the tourists visiting London as well. These lights today, are a part of Harrods' identity.


The Brand and the Business: Las Vegas also known as the Sin city is one of the most popular city in the United States of America. It is known worldwide for gambling, shopping and fine dining and hence is said to be the entertainment capital of the world. It is said that Vegas wakes up at night and hence Vegas understands the importance of light.

Use of light: The identity (the logo) of Las Vegas is lit up lights giving it a strong vibrant look which goes with the Vegas image. All around the city; light sculptures can be seen. The whole city is lit up with colourful and powerful lights at night.

The Identity of Las Vegas was designed by Betty Willis. This identity was never copyrighted and was a gift to the city by Betty Willis. This enormous use of light in the city does form an image in peoples' mind. When asked about Las Vegas; the reactions of people besides it being a sin city are these lights all around the city. When people see and appreciate these lights, why was this light not branded in the favor of the brand? Would branding this light' help the brand communicate emotionally with the people?


The Brand and the Business: Hollister Co. is an American lifestyle brand by Abercrombie & Fitch Co designed to attract consumers aged 14-18 at a lower price than the parent brand. Hollister Co. believes in the technique of "walking self-marketing". Screen print and embroidered brand names are visible on the Hollister Co. clothes

 The stores are designed to sensitize the impression of vintage beach shacks in the shopping malls. This out of the box thinking makes the Hollister Co. stores stand out in any mall. From the Décor, to the music played the in-store lighting are all designed to the whole shack mood.

Use of Light: Hollister Co. is one brand that uses negative light in a positive way. The in-store lighting in Hollister Co. is very dim, If we say its dark inside, it would not be wrong.

This out of the box thinking by the brand has worked in their favor. This negative lighting interests and communicates with their target consumers. This is also spread by the word of mouth. The experience is Hollister Co. is completely different compared to any other brand and hence is remembered for long by the consumers.

The Ritz, London

The business and brand: The Ritz is a luxury hotel situated in Central London owned by renowned hotelier Cesar Ritz. It commenced its journey on May 24th 1906. The actual design of the hotel is the work of architects Charles Mewes and Arthur Davis (The Ritz, 2010). The exterior of the hotel embodies the influence of various Parisian architectural traditions.

The Ritz lived its stardom from it


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