Disclaimer: This is an example of a student written essay.
Click here for sample essays written by our professional writers.

Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UKEssays.com.

Literature Review Ice cream Nowadays

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Marketing
Wordcount: 2495 words Published: 1st Jan 2015

Reference this

Ice cream we call glaces a la crème in French. Base on the book written by Shannon Jackson Arnold, that in France, sundaes are called coupes after the wide-mounthed. (Shannon Jackson Arnold 2004) write one book and the title of the book is Everybody Loves ice cream. Shannon fond that got so matter that influence people want to eat Ice cream.

Get Help With Your Essay

If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!

Essay Writing Service

Ice cream as we recognize it today has been in existence for at least 300 years, though its origins probably date much further back.(C. Clarke 2004). Ice cream is one of global market , because almost every county in the world eaten and made ice cream. In the worldwide production of ice cream is around 14.4 billion liters in 2001, .( C. Clarke 2004 ) people in the word like to sales ice cream because of the weather and advertising. For example in France , 65% of sales are made between June and September, the weather one of the reason a substantial impact on sales, especially at the certain time. Such as on the weekends. .( C. Clarke 2004 ) ice cream famous in may flavor, brand, and also packages. In book Ice cream by Robert T. Marshall et all state that Compositional standards differ around the world, as does the understanding of what constitutes ice cream.

Customer Behavior

The customer’s point of view, price is often used as a cue in their expectations of the product/service performance (Han 2010) some of the customer perception is the more he or she the more quality or services they will get, they will get what they pay. Customers do not know/remember the actual price of a specific product/service, but they encode the price in ways that are meaningful to them (Zeithaml, 1983). No all customer will remember how much one scoop of ice cream in Bakin Robbins or Haagen Dazs.

Perception of Services quality, it will back to how the waitress serves you, To gain competitive advantage and increase organizational effectiveness, companies are focusing their attention on improving service quality. ( Gazzoli, 2010 ) but come of the company not really focus about the service quality, like the ice creams store that normally people just buy the grab it and go. But some of the ice cream like Haagen Dazs and Baskin Robbins. They have a shop that the customer can sit and enjoy they ice cream.

Consumer behavior is seen as “the behavior that consumers display in searching for, purchasing, using, evaluating, and disposing of products and services that they expect will satisfy their needs” (Schiffman & Kanuk 2007:3).( viviam claasem 2007) consumer behavior is a base in the marketing concept. Consumer behavior that we have actually to understanding of consumer trends, consumer wants , models to predict purchase and consumption patterns, and communication methods to reach target markets most effectively. With we understanding about consumer behavior the consumer behavior, we can know what certainly the consumer want or what customer looking for. Consumer behavior is based on the study of human behavior, but from the point of view of a consumer role. Mostert (2002:37) accepts that consumer behavior is founded in human behavior. (viviam claasem 2007)

Customer Perception

Perception is the ability to see, hear, or become aware of thorough the senses ( oxford dictionaries ) that actually what the normal limits of human perception. Alias Radam in the journal about consumer perception, in the journal he mention that Consumer’s perception and attitudes can influence the decision of making process and also buying behavior of each individual. Perception actually affected by external and internal environmental effect such as economic, social, cultural and so on. The propose of we know about customer perception is to built up the customer experiences, with this we will know what the customer perception about service quality, product quality, and so on. Customer perception is one of important part, because when the customer want to purchase same product especially food product will step one process so the customer may decide to buy or to not buy the product

Perception, Color. And realism ( Wayne Wright) Store atmosphere is about explain more subconscious concept involving customers emotions in the store (Emma Aspfors 2010) perception and Sensation are perfect combination. For the Sensation refers to the process of sensing the environment through touch, taste, sight, sound and smell.


Sight is more to the product that we can see with our eyes, we can see different colors that make us feel more interesting purchase the product. Because Emma Aspfors said that . Color has also proven to have both physical and psychological influences on humans. Colors are of course important especially in the home-furnishing business since it is a business that is easily affected by trends. Except for the importance of having the right colored store due to trends, colors also can affects customer perception and buying behavior


Playing slow music in the store will make the customer feel enjoy, feel more relaxed. Relaxed customers’ perception would certainly be better than non-relaxed customers would, but the objectives of a store do not always go with the customers (Peter, Olson 2005, 495; Solomon et. al 2006, 43-44) (Emma Aspfors 2010)


Touch is more to the material in the store, the material that use for the chair, table, the counter and so on. This actually to create a customer perception of high quality the advices are to choose material as silk or wool while but all the material or the quality will back with the restaurant itself.


Smell, it’s a other senses, this also can influence buying behavior. Different restaurant or store normally have they own smell that make unique, Baskin-Robbins and Haagen-Dazs they own smell, that can it can affect customer’s perception.


Taste is more to the product itself. Each of the food product have special taste, that you can’t get from other shop, chocolate flavor that customer taste in Baskin-Robbins will different with chocolate flavor Haagen-Dazs. Knowing Consumers taste preferences are very central for the food industry when Segmenting and positioning a new product (See e.g. Solomon et. al 2006, 45-46) (Emma Aspfors 2010)

Base on the Schiffman and Kanuk on the article consumer Behavior, perception has three aspects which are Selection, Organization and Interpretation. This three point is interrelated.

Selection is depends on two major factor which is Consumer’s previous experience and consumer’s motives


The foundation of the brand is its name.(Keller, 2003). Brand is created as label, brand image. brand also can a There are two kinds of sparks, the one that goes off with a hitch like a match, but it burns quickly. The other is the kind that needs time, but when the flame strikes. it’s eternal, don’t forget that. -timothy oliveira-ffect the customer behaviour, it’s customer to be loyal to the product because of the brand. Actually the company make the promotion to the customer do the customer will be know the product and make the friendly with the brand itself.

On average, people are exposed to more than 1,000 commercial messages each day (Kotler & Keller, 2005). Not only are we being exposed to brands in visual advertisements on billboards and Web sites, in magazines and emails but also to brands in aural commercial messages on the radio and through personal selling. With the brand people can buy the food they like. Some of the people saw the advertisement on the television, magazine , heard from radio and so on. How they make the brand good the more they can get customer, especially the Y generation. Majority from them like to buy something not only food, because of the brand itself. For example like we to the grocery shopping, than normally there sale ice cream and there not only sale one brand but a lot of brand. Normally we as a generation Y will chose ice cream that the brand we already familiar although the price is more expensive.

Brand is very important for a product in the market, brand name is to give consumer information about the product itself. Brand asset are difficult and expensive to develop, maintain, and also adapt ( David A. Aaker ) one product must have a good brand is right to say to have a good brand that acceptable in the community is not easy and to have brand is to cheap. The brand attitude is opinion of consumers toward a product determined through market research. It will tell what customer think about a product or service, whether the product can answer what actually the consumer need, and just how much the product is wanted by the consumer . Brand attitudes determine the consumer’s psychological aspect. The strength of brand loyalties is demonstrated by the fact that, on average, precursor keep about half their market in units even though the fact that generics are roughly one third the price of first pioneer ( Henry G. Grabowski 2009) first pioneer is important because they that make brand strong.

(Schiffman and Kanuk )


Haagen-Dazs logo is unique because the logo as synonymous with the ultimate suoer-premium ice cream, Haagen-Dazs stared on early 1920’s, Rueben Mattus, he is one of a young entrepreneur, he know about ice cream since young, because his mother selling ice cream. With a passion about ice ream. On 1960 by supported from his wife, he dedicated o one new company, than he come out with one brand is call Haagen-Dazs, as we know Haagen-Dazs also famous in the market. At firs Haagen-Dazs only available in New York City, but Rueben Mattus not only stop until New York City, he also distribution to east of the U.S. in 1983. Mattus Agreed to the Pillsbury Company, Since the time Haagen-Dazs become a global phenomenon, than now Haagen-Dazs available in mare than 50 Countries.

Baskin Robbins


(http://www.baskinrobbins.com )(The two logos prior to the one unveiled in 2007 )

Brand of Baskin-Robbins is actually is the name of two Brothers in law, Burt Baskin and Irv Robbins. They both believed that should have choices flavor of ice cream, so the founders offer 31 flavors, one for every day of the month. They also believed that people come to the shop able to sample different flavors without charge money or free of charge, before they purchase they ice cream, so the customer will enjoy the ice cream with the perfect flavor that they already chooses. If you notes in middle of brand Baskin-Robbins that have number 31. Why 31 it’s because Baskin-Robbins having 31 flavors come from the Carson-Roberts advertising agency in 1953.

One of the sacred why Baskin-Robbins still famous until now is because they founders which is Burt Baskin and Irv Robbins taught them that they should never rest on our successes. Then they still working on the next wonderful flavor.

Baskin-Robbins is one of largest ice cream franchise in the world, Baskin-Robbins have 5,800 locations and 2,800 located in United States. Now we know why Baskin-Robbins can sells ice cream in over 30 countries, which are Canada, Japan, Mexico< United Kingdom ,Egypt, Australia, Indonesia, Malaysia, South Korea, India, Pakistan, Taiwan and so on.


(Schiffman and Kanuk )

Demographic Segmentation

Demographic characteristic, is talk about age, gender, status, races, occupation, education and sometime also income and so on. With the date form demographic the company to know the market and also help the company to reach and determining the segmentation of the target market, company will have a big picture who is the target market and also know is it the customer familiar with the product. Demographics and consumer have a relationship

(G Sidhar 2007 )


Age is a picture of determines the consumption of various products, media, shopping centers and so on. Age also influences the level of consumer implication (Slama and Tashchin 1985; Jain and Sharma 2002) (G Sidhar 2007 ) we focus on the generation Y that born between 1977 and 1994, generation Y also called echo boomer and millennium generation


Customer is a unique personality, men and women both of them have differ interest, knowledge, social status and so on. In the market we have differences in the laves for various products between men and women, so actually what women like doesn’t mean man also can accept it.


Talk about income is quit sensitive part, no all the customer like to share about this. Income determines the purchasing power of the individual customer. Somehow income enables purchases but does not generally cause them.


Occupation is one of the widely applied cues to evaluate an individual (Hawkins et al 2003) is more related to education, working place. Consumer involvement level for some product would differ with different occupations

They identified that individuals tend to go through certain stages in their lives called Family Life Cycle (Schiffman and Kanuk 2002; G Sidhar 2007 ) base on this we can divide into Teenage that age start from 13 to 19 years old they like prefer to eat at fast food restaurant, young adult that age start from 20 to 40 years old they prefer to dine into somewhere that exciting and have the gastronomy while ; adult age start 25 years old above prefer to dine into family restaurant.

Find Out How UKEssays.com Can Help You!

Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. From simple essay plans, through to full dissertations, you can guarantee we have a service perfectly matched to your needs.

View our services

Core product

Product perception, how good the quality of the product for the consumer. The definition of food quality is a subjective matter, differing from person to person, food quality is related to term of perceive food quality is related to the product’s ability to provide satisfaction as well as a consistent level of the properties of the product ( Kamenidou et al 2003 ) different product have different quality standard for the product, use different kind of ingredient also one of the factor that can affect the self live of the product itself. We talk more about the product itself, how the company mange the product so the customer can accept it, base on the quality.

Marketing and promotion on the company to market the product, each company have different way to promote the product. Company want to customer can come to the store and purchase the product, like what the Baskin-Robbin do is every Wednesday if the customer bring something with the colour pink so when the customer purchase 1 scup of Baskin-Robbin ice cream will get 2 scup. Different with Haagen-Dazs is more to the new product or we can say follow the event Haagen-Dazs make the moon cake promotion on 19 Augustus -26 September 2010 and so on.


Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:

Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.

Related Services

View all

DMCA / Removal Request

If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on UKEssays.com then please: