The aim of the article attempts to carry out the theoretical research and review the outcomes of the relationship of consumer attitude and brand as well as proves the relationship empirically, and also applying the example of Nike sports brand to illustrate how behavior.
Consumers always face difficulties while trying to explain logically why some brands suggest strong negative feelings or why they are more attractive to one brand instead of another (Mothersbaugh and Hawkins, 2007). Empirical studies prove that definite emotions towards services or goods are usual to buyers and the price of a good as well as practical advantage is not the only reasons for the selection of the product. The experience of a customer after a contact with a good or brand is described as emotions that may have a varying level of intensity and may change depending on a product or situation (Genevieve, Hawkins & Simone, 2006). The impact of emotions and feelings on the formation of attitude is practically not investigated and the need to examine senses as a source of emotions appeared. Thus, the article attempts at solving the problem, related with implementation of strategies how could win more customers’ positive attitude.
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The conception of attitude
Loudon and Della Bitta (1993) note that attitude is how for or against, positively or negatively, favorably or unfavorably a person regards a particular object. This definition aims to reveal the idea that attitude contains consumer feelings and evaluations, related with a particular object. Solomon, Bamossy and Askegaard (2002) support the idea of the authors mentioned above and state that attitude is a long-lasting and common assessment of people, including oneself, objects, advertisement and a particular problem. Schiff man and Kanuk (2004) define attitude within the context of consumer behavior as a constant tendency to behave accordingly in a concrete situation, regarding a certain object or a group of objects.
Consumers attitude always have some sorts of concepts, consumers have attitudes towards various social and physical objects including models, products, stores, brands, and people. Consumers also have attitudes towards imaginary objects such as concepts and ideas (Peter et al, 1999), beside their own behaviors or actions including their future behavior and past actions. Attitude formation helps buyers to make choices by providing a way to assess their alternatives which based on the attributes and benefits of each product. This thesis concentrates on intention of female student towards fashion clothes purchasing, as attitude have significant influence on consumer intention, and it becomes important to understand attitude theory in detail. However, attitude generally represents the effect of past personal experiences and the communicated experiences of others. Attitudes are functionally useful in directing consumers towards product or brand they find useful in satisfying needs and wants. In this way customer behave to prefer the final product which best satisfy their demands and expectations (Genevieve, Hawkins & Simone, 2006). Attitude consists of three major components which are well described by tri-component attitude model, according to this model attitude consist of three components: cognitive, affective and behavioral.
CBA model—Main components of attitude
The cognitive component captures a consumer’s knowledge and perceptions about products and brands. The knowledge often is a belief about an objects attributes and benefits. The affective component is a products evaluation in terms of rating its favorableness. The cognitive component of an attitude consists of a consumer’s beliefs and knowledge about an attitude object. For example many people believe that Coke Zero has no kilojoules, contains caffeine and is made by a big company. Those beliefs represent the cognitive component of an attitude towards Coke Zero.
In contrast, the affective component focuses is on consumer’s emotions or feelings regarding a specific product or brand in a particular context. For instance, if a consumer says ‘I like it’, or ‘it is a terrible drink’ which is expressing the results of an affective evaluation of the product without cognitive information about the product.
Finally, the behavioral component is concerned with the likelihood or tendency that a consumer will act in a specific way regarding a product. In marketing and consumer behavior, the behavioral component is frequently measured in terms of consumer’s intention to buy (Blackwell et al. 2001). For example, decisions to buy or not buy, recommend it or other brand to friends are all behavioral component of attitudes about the product.
So a marketer implements efficient and effective marketing strategies to influence customers’ attitude. In this report, Nike Sport shoes will be regarded as an example to describe that buyer’s behavior may be affected by the attitude on cognitive, affective, and behavioral components and how the marketing strategies can influence the buyer behaviors.
Application of marketing to Nike sports
Nike Sport is a representative brand of the sport shoes and the attitudes of customers are formed by the cognitive, affective and behavioral components. The cognitive component of an attitude depends on consumers’ beliefs and knowledge. For example, those who purchase Nike Sport shoes may believe that Nike Sport is designed for those who are keen on the sport activities. And the reputation of this brand is known and sold in the most countries. The products’ quality of this brand is being approved and affirmed. This is the reason for that each of these beliefs reflects knowledge about an attribute of this brand and the cognitive attitude generally is related with buyers’ common sense (Engel and Blackwell, 1998). Moreover, the affective attitude is contributed to react on the customers’ feelings or emotions. For instance, the slogan of Nike ‘just do it’ may attract more customers, which is empathy to encourage their customer to anything they want. In the minds of customers, Nike symbolizes the sense of freedom, pleasure, and exciting. In this case, the feeling of the branding colure and spirit is expressed the result of an emotional evaluation of the sport shoes. Another component of behavioral attitude is relevant with the respond in a certain manner towards an attitude. This is point that customers may buy the sport shoes in the sport shop because buyers believe that they may have more alternative in the specific shop. This is the reason that Nike sport shoes establish a range of branches to influence customers’ response that Nike is professional brand to design the sport shoes.
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When customers have their personal attitude on Nike brand, the Nike marketer may integrate the marketing strategy to change customers’ attitude on their brand. The brand image of Nike Sport is personalization and freedom, which means that the marketer takes advantages of the brand position and spirit to change the sophisticated attitude. Most of the advertisements strategies of Nike Sport are related with those sport stars, because of their maverick, personality, irritable and aggressive. This is the point that Nike Sport wants use these stars to build its brand attitude. For example, the basketball superstar Michael Jordan is the representative in the Nike advertisement, and Michael Jordan condensed vigor, reputation, excellent sports level and exciting sports spirit, which is similar with Nike Sport brand position. This is a successful strategy that Nike used the celebrity effect to influence buyers’ feeling, to convince their customers of the spirit of personality and freedom.
Furthermore, “just do it” is a classic advertising slogan to Nike Sport, which is simple, clear and colloquial. It also represents a kind of sports and life attitude which include easiness, freedom and enjoyment. When customers learn this word, they also have changes of their cognitive attitudes, because these advertisement strategies are implemented to change people minds gradually. These are effect and efficient implementation to affect consumers’ beliefs and attitude towards the advertisement.
In conclusion, with the long branding development of Nike Sport, this brand already formed a reliable, professional brand cognitive image in people’s minds, and builds its specific brand position and spirit of personality and freedom to response the feeling of customers. So the Nike’s marketers need to take advantages of the advertisement to change their customers’ feelings of their brand
Draws in conclusion; there are three attitude component which are the affective component, the behavioral component and the cognitive component. Using Nike sports as example, cognitive attitude is how you think Nike brand, what is the image and beliefs of Nike brand show to the public. The affective component of Nike is how you feel about this brand and whether you like it or not. The respond to this brand which means whether you will buy the products or not and if you will recommend or prevent this brand to your friends is the behavioral attitudes.
Attitude-Behavior relationship is important to managers because it not only concludes a consumer’s evaluation of a brand or a company, but also represents positive or negative feelings and behavioral tendencies theoretically. The relationship between attitude and behavior can be affected by many factors such as advertising and promotion. They can reinforce existing favorable attitudes or change negative attitudes. Usually, the attitude of consumers to a new product can be influenced by an advertising messages or the assessment of the product appearing in the advertisement.
Attitude is one of the most important variables in consumer behavior. In a marketing context, attitudes are predispositions toward specific brands, products or companies that cause consumer to respond favorably or unfavorably toward them (Assael, 1992).
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