The observation shows that every human being is a creation of his personal set of occurrence, learned information, values and hopes regarding the humanity; each human being considerate of advertising is influence by this similar distinctiveness. Common aim of the society is social progress. The problem Statement of this research is that outdoor advertising does create impact of consumer behavior towards social cause. The objective of this research is designed to disclose the role of outdoor advertising in bringing awareness and perception for social cause. The hypothesis of this research is stated as there is a positive role of outdoor advertising in bringing awareness and developing perception about social causes. Convenience sampling test technique is used and the sample size of this research is 100. Keeping in view the requirement of the study a questionnaire comprising ten questions was constructed, mostly close ended questions were opted. For data collection I had to go to common people giving them the questionnaire and wait with them until they had finished the questionnaire. Technique of one way ANOVA has been used to test the variables and the results shows that outdoor advertising is a truly unique and effective medium and also plays a vital role in bringing awareness and perception for social cause. Thus, forming a conclusion it can be said that social outdoor advertising is playing an integral part in bringing perception and awareness and has emerged as an effective medium to promote social cause.
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
Advertising is not just about advertisements, it is an institutional element of culture, a social force which is afflicted by and in turn afflicts the society.
Advertising has its impact on society even though it is showing on television, internet, publications or billboards.
Advertising has been around ever since people have been around. Its earliest beginnings of course, are not possible to focus but there are several examples dating back thousands of years. Advertising was a well-established part of the social environments of early civilization. Here are some of the glimpses of history of this modern instrument of the mass media. Clay tables traced to earliest Babylon found with messages of ointment merchant and a shoemaker. Ancestors of modern-day billboards were found in the skeleton of Pompeii. The town crier was an important advertising medium throughout Europe and England during the medieval period. Gutenberg’s invention of printing using variable type media made possible several new advertising media: posters, handbills, and newspaper ads. First printed advertisement was fashioned in about 1480 and was a handbill that announced a prayer book for sale. It was placed all over England, on church’s door. Thus first advertising was done in an outdoor medium. By 1600’s advertisement was common in London in the newspaper. The Boston newsletter became first American newspaper to distribute advertising. Ben Franklin, pioneer of early advertisement made his ads more attractive by using large headlines. Franklin fundamentally gave way to classified ads in newspapers, which are still used. The industrial revaluation caused major changes in American society and in American advertising. The impact of increasing industrialization was most apparent in the period following the end of the civil war in the beginning of twentieth century. Then the rail and roads made possible the way of trade from east to the west. New communication media afterward increased in productivity thus giving rise to the advertising industry. The economic and communication climate made easy for mass productivity. Magazines were first form of advertising tool to travel from one seaboard to another. By 1900 the country was not unusual for the leading magazines to carry the advertisements. The 1920’s saw the beginning of radio as an advertisement medium. The growth of advertising from the end of the war in 1945 to the early 1900’s can only be described as spectacular. TV advertising attracted many of the manufacturers to place their advertisement on TV. The 1980’s and 1990’s saw the media environment for advertising drastically changed. Cable television open dozens of new and specialized channels. Advertising accomplishes four essential purposes in humanity. At initial, it provides the marketing purpose by means of serving corporations to facilitate the goods/ services and also to trade their products. With the help of individual promotion, sales advertising and publicity that combines mutually to assist marketing and manufactured goods. Subsequent advertising is also learning. The Public gain information regarding fresh goods and services or else enhancement within available ones during advertising. If we are talking about the third aspect, advertising also participates in economic responsibility. The competences to publicize are to allocate fresh players to come in the business field. Opposition in turn gives confidence to product development and be able to lead towards inferior cost. Moreover advertising reaches mass spectators, therefore significantly dropping the cost of individual selling and transmission. Finally advertising performs a definite social function. By brilliantly presenting the objects and civilizing prospect obtainable at no cost enterprise society, it helps to increase productivity and raising standard of living. Advertising is directed at a target audience, a specific subdivision of the population for whom the product or service has a definite appeal. A persuasive message carried by a non-personal medium and paid for by an identified sponsor.
One way communication.
Cannot accept direct feedback.
Control the approximate content of the message the timing and frequency of the duplication.
Can be used to maintain other promotional events.
Advertising is very beneficial and important due to the reason that, in customer entrepreneurship, persons depend on it for significance. A resource of public knowledge surrounded within commodities with the intention of intervene interpersonal relationships and individual reorganization. Advertising is supposed to be visualizing as a significant organization inside the customer society because it generates striking structure of importance that participate and play a vital position in character socialization and societal replication.
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1.2 Problem Statement
Outdoor advertising stands out as a powerful option for people, being one of the few medium with potential to capture the attention of everyone. The relationship between an individual and his society is mutual and reciprocal. Society is reasonable for the socialization of its individual. Social advertising refers to community-based programs to encourage more socially desirable behavior. It is assumed that social outdoor advertising does create impact of consumer buying behavior. The study consequently endeavors to study the role of social outdoor advertisement in bringing perception and awareness for social cause.
H0: There is a positive role of outdoor advertising in bringing awareness and developing perception about social causes.
HA: There is no impact of outdoor advertising in bringing awareness and developing perception about social causes.
1.4 Objective of Research
Advertising presents a totally convenient message. Since the advertiser pays for the freedom or the time in which his advertisement appears, he has the right to maintain his message appearing exactly as he chooses, when he chooses and how he chooses.
Advertising distributes message to large number of people and accomplishes the need of people by educating them and providing them information about latest products and things. This is done cleverly by choosing the right medium to transport the message.
Advertising is a speedy method of communicating with people, at the same time advertising reaches a large number of people .Moreover, more than one media can be used in this.
Advertising strategies are based upon broader marketing and promotional strategies. Specific advertising strategies might include:
Increasing consumption by present consumers.
By Creating an additional sale leads.
By rising product understanding.
By growing replicate purchase.
By sustaining existing advertising attempts.
Advertising plays an important role in any society. It Influences the society stability and expansion. It helps to generate entertainment events attracting hundreds of thousands of places, a burden of responsibility on those who sponsor or buy, create production and sell advertising to preserve ethical standards that maintain the society and contribute to the economic system. Advertisers are critiqued when they fail to acknowledge the social norms.
Advertising aims to create awareness and convince people with a single and non-personal message (Longman, 1971). Advertising has grown out of social, economic and commercial developments that had taken place at some point in history. (Nevett, 1982).
Because of its capability to deliver message economically and effectively, advertising is very extensively used in different ways here are some of them:
Individuals and families purchase space in local newspapers to trade their items that they no longer need, Matrimonial advertisements are given as well.
Local Classified Advertising
A high percentage of advertising space in provincial and local newspapers is apprehensive with jobs, cars and houses. This type of advertising is particularly written under the heading of classified.
Manufacturer’s Consumer Advertising
This is where common people correlate with advertising. It accounts for much of the smooth, high-spending rhythmic advertising on TV radio, and print. This is the advertising of food, drink, tobacco, clothing, cars, household goods, toiletries goods and leisure goods. Books, magazines, newspaper, shopping places, tourism along with amusement can also be included in this grouping.
More and more retailers are now developing their own brand labels and are advertising comprehensively.
The manufactures along with their consumers are communicating with the wholesaler, retailers etc who are their immediate customers. These people need to be educated of new products, price changes, new packaging and exclusive offer deals and to be persuaded to deal with one supplier comparatively than another.
Industrial (Business-to-Business) Advertising
The advertisement that is known to be most popular, which is concerned with consumer products and services and appears widely in newspapers, magazines, on the radio and TV, in the cinema and on posters and billboards.
It includes the advertising of goods and service for Commerce Industry. Government and other institutions (hospitals, schools, hotel and catering chains).
In this type of advertising the objective is to give added worth to the products of the company. It encourages people to trust and enjoy dealing with the company. Moreover it encourages the shareholders to think well of the company.
It includes recruitment advertising, consumer advertising and cause advertising.
Financial and Saving Advertising
Books, building societies, insurance companies advertise their services. Companies circulate their annual reports.
Charity and Educational Advertising
Charities advertise to collect funds for social causes or any tragic event like earthquakes or for needy people.
This type of advertising is used to seek for preventing the environment, for helping political prisoners and many other campaigns for public support of a particular cause.
Simply defined promotion is every outline of non individual appearance and support of thoughts, supplies as well as services typically compensated intended for an recognized supporter.
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
Much work has been done on “The role of outdoor advertisement in bringing perception and awareness for social cause”. The material searched for this research proves that there is a positive role of outdoor advertisement in bringing perception and awareness for social cause. Outdoor advertisement is effective in reaching audiences on the go with quick, eye-catching message. Transit vehicles take where they want to go: where they live, work, shop and play. Wherever those vehicles travel, advertising went along. They travel through busy downtown areas and are essential to reach major educational institutions, healthcare centers, financial institutions and entertainment Venuses.
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A lot of research has been design to generate awareness amongst people about health, education and social issues. During the summer of 1993, Department of Nebraska Health’s Harvest for a Lifetime Programmed utilizes an entire nineteen billboards in fourteen countryside neighborhood to encourage their memorandum for the avoidance of skin. The main messages on these Billboards are to wear the exact material in order to avoid skin disease. Also diverse billboards, each one posture the similar motto, attributed neighborhood public from the area wearing hats, t- shirts, jeans and lengthy pants, These billboards were positioned close to the people home towns having attributes of publicity and advertisement ran for minimum three month involving June, July and August. The charge for post was $ 3,500 through numerous of the billboards presented at zero cost as a community services. Around two hundred revealing interviews were carried out in month of August 1993 to estimate the height of responsiveness produced with the help of billboards movement between the target spectators.
Over the last 20 years, people have shown great interest for environmental protection. Environmental issues are very common in advertising and one of the most important social movements in current history. National polls and public are very much concerned for environmental issues (Roper, 1992). According to Roper, the concern of pezaople that has shown the highest level of environmental issues have doubled from 11% to 20 % between 1990 and 1992.The marketers termed this environmental protection advertisement as Green advertising and the number of green advertisement are increasing amongst a particular segment of the population. Green advertising is defined as those ads that meet and address the relationship between products and their effects on the environment; also these types of ads encourage green life styles and represent an image of environmental responsibility. Using of recycled paper and plastic goods and safety of aquatic life like dolphin and tuna are one of the examples of environmental appeal. In 1986 the number of new green products rose to 60 and in 1991 this figure kept increasing to 810. The share for all green products among other products rose from 1.1% in 1986 to 13.4 % in 1991 (Ottman, 1993). Between 1986 to 1990 the volume of green print ads increased by 430% and similarly TV ads increased by 367% (Ottman, 1993). Much of the research has been done that normally indicates the structure of green advertising in three dimensions.
Sponsor type ads (This type of ads has been used for profit or non profit).
Focus ads (This type of ads has been used either for advertiser or the consumer).
Depth of the ads (This type of ads has been designed according to the environmental information that whether the ad is focused on shallow, moderate or deep information).
Consumers that desire a green life style must work to minimize the adverse effect on environment, for example, by choosing a transport that helps for environmental concerns. A consumer can choose a small and fuel efficient car or ride a bicycle to create his involvement in green life style. Another Example is by selecting a detergent. Selecting a detergent packed in recycled paper having less toxic compounds is to create much more awareness and participation for green lifestyle. Such type of activities involves different degrees of green lifestyle. Advertisers normally define the environmental benefits in the products for consumers who want green lifestyles (Naess 1973). Advertisers also portray an image of cooperate responsibility as a part of the company vision and mission. Green life style ads consist of five major categories (Iyer and Banerjee, 1992) which are stated as under.
Ad characteristics can be defined by three variables Advertiser Type, promoted service and product and the ad character. Ad greenness can be explained by the extent of environmental issues focused in the ads. Ads that considered as vague related with environmental issues are considered as shallow. Ads that did not inform environmental issue with respect to product or services to great extent but mentioned certain issues like recycling were stated as moderate. Ads that specifically zoom on environmental issues to great extent having great description are considered as deep.
It can now rightly be said that structure of green advertisement is explained accurately in three ways. The sponsor of the ad, target market i.e. focuses on the ad, and the explanation or depth inside the ad. This information was successful in bringing awareness and perception and outdoor medium proved to be an integral part of the media, playing a positive role in the society (Iyer and Banerjee, 1992).
Outdoor advertising is always an effective source of any social campaign. Before advertising the people has low level of information, but after advertising people know the information and awareness was increased. In previous researches, the before and after effects of consumer awareness due to outdoor advertising was intense. One of the famous campaigns was to identify Miss America 1975.The study was conducted in 11 metropolitan cities of America. This study focused upon the identification of Miss America 1975. The study consists of one hundred showings of billboard in ten metropolitan areas in the United Stated. The advertising campaign consists of billboards and the message on the billboard was Identify Miss America 1975 (L. Fitts and C. Hewett, 1977). The Billboard contains a colorful picture of Miss America (Shirley Cothran, 1975). This campaign runs for 60 days for the month of January and February in the ten metropolitan areas. The dependent variable in the study was the number of adults living in those metropolitan areas who could identify Miss America 1975. The billboards remained in place for around 60 days. The before measurement would result less than 1% (0.89%) of the respondents who could identify Miss America. After advertising the proportion of respondents who identify Miss America 1975 increased by 15.07% in the after measurement.
Here the outdoor advertisement in 10 metropolitan cities increased the respondent awareness and the increased in awareness was recorded almost 14.7 % in national study (L. Fitts and C. Hewett, 1977). However it should be noted that the billboard advertisement increase awareness to identify Miss America 1975 and create unusual amount curiosity. It can now rightly be said that the outdoor advertisement plays a vital role in bringing awareness and perception for any social causes.
In Nebraska State 1994, winter season of 1994 was very famous as of advertisement is concern, eleven different billboards scampered in ten diverse neighborhoods, encouraging the fabrication for a lifetime chew up tobacco termination agenda. The Billboard attributed a photograph of an unidentified cowboy, transportation the motto “Be geared up to stop chew?” and a toll free number was also given for further information and for people concern. Every billboard was inside the ground for minimum two months stuck between January, February and March and corresponded with public learning conference and further media promotion being carried out in the region, Chewers were calling the toll free number acknowledged a free of charge Quit Kit and in sequence concerning community learning curriculum in their vicinity. The results showed that till research ended, almost 500 Quit Kits have been circulated, and about one fourth of the callers talking regarding the billboards as a foundation of information, opening assessments of the two billboards movements have exposed that compensated and non compensated outdoor promotion can be precious technique for escalating community of health messages furthermore it can bring awareness on much feasible level.
In United States of America, a campaign was conducted on “Polio Eradication Fundraising” in February 2000. For this purpose more than 250 billboards promoting polio eradication were displayed in 31 states in the USA and 16 other countries. After the campaign a research was conducted according to which an estimated 75 million people saw the billboards along roadsides, at airports and transportation shelters, on trains and buses, and other locations. This confirmed that billboards proved to be an effective medium in bringing awareness among the people.
Outdoor advertising plays a vital role to identify the importance and precautions of any syndrome. The AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) disease may be the most depressing, divisive and very urgent public health problem. United States currently have the highest number of AIDS cases in the world. The statistics in U.S shows that over 80,000 cases of AIDS were found in U.S in 1989 (Centers for Disease Control 1989) which increased by 270,000 cases in 1991 and which result the death of 170,000 by the time. These issues lead to draw attention to advertising condoms usage and mandatory AIDS testing at work. Doctors suggests that since there in no chemical medicine and vaccine for the cure of this disease, the only way to prevent are through public information and through guides and providing vast level of education (Lunin, 1988). Many industries (Federal and private sectors) are providing AIDS information through newspaper, media, outdoor advertising campaigns, schools and community programs to create awareness and perception for social cause. Lot of studies has been taken for conducting the concern about general public and especially students (Lou Harris, 1987). The objective of the study is to assess each area of current AIDS media campaign, to emphasize area officials about the attributes of advertising role in preventing AIDS and to get Government attention into improving the effectives of AIDS media campaign. (McDermott, Hawkins, Moore and Critadino, 1987). In October 1987, the U.S department of Health and human services with the help of CDC (Center for Disease Control) start began a national wide education for the general public about the risk of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) transmission. The main purpose of the campaign was developing collaboration between national organizations and local community organizations. The main objective by CDC is to provide AID awareness. Some of the points are elaborated as under (CDC, 1987):
Providing education for preventing needle sharing behavior and regarding specific sexual education that causes HIV communication.
By providing proper education to improve public awareness and understanding of how HIV is, and is not transferred.
Reduce unnecessary fear and wrongness
By improving public awareness on testing HIV and prevention.
To provide relationship with National Institute of Drugs Abuse (NIDA) to dishearten the phenomena of needle sharing.
Handiness families and active community leaders to maintain and take corrective actions in AIDS prevention.
Many high authorities believe that the real problem comes against AIDS when it comes to state and local government. In 1984, state has allotted more than $239 Million revenues for AIDS activities. In the year of 1998 around thirty different states gathered suitable general earnings funds to fight for the AIDS virus (Merritt and Rowe, 1988). Some States suffer a problem predestined on moral and social grounds and are forced to alter or even abandon the campaign. For example New York pays a lengthy battle with the media because its campaign suggested condom use. The media discourage the ad because they thought that this ad might help to encourage sex for unmarried couples (Wells, 1988). Some other states like Minnesota freighted that its rural newspapers would not print its AIDS campaign.
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