Tourism means that the people leave the place of permanent residence for the primary purpose of a short-lived experience with the view of recreation, entertainment, aesthetics, knowledge, leisure and vacation in different places. Tourism is a cross-cultural exchange activity, and its off-site property makes the tourists from different cultural backgrounds and the hosts in the tourism scenario to be a wide range of cross-cultural exchange. It is important to analyse the behavior of tourists from the cross-cultural perspective. This can make the host country to provide suitable tourism products and services to the tourists and promote the development of the tourism industry. Australian Bureau of Statistics showed the Asian inbound tourists in Australia increased significantly in 2005, as showed that the Asian region played a very important role in the sustainable development of Australian tourism (Lee, 2000). This report will analyse the behaviors of Japanese tourists in Australia.
Table of Contents
1.0 Executive summary 2
2.0 Introduction 4
3.0 The travel behaviors of Japanese tourists in Australia 4
4.0 The spiritual culture, values and customs which affect the travel behaviors of Japanese tourists 6
5.0 Recommendations 7
6.0 Conclusion 9
7.0 References 10
The relationship between culture and tourism are very close, and cultural factors run through the course of tourism development. In all the relevant factors impacting the decision making of the tourists, the culture factor is the most important for the tourism because every tourist lives in a particular social and cultural environment and is restricted by the specific cultural environment. Generally speaking, culture is a social phenomenon and the product of the long-term creation. It is also a historical phenomenon and the accumulation of social history material. Culture includes national history, geography, customs, traditions, lifestyle, literature and art, code of conduct, ways of thinking and values (Kosak, 2001). Each consumer grows and lives in a certain cultural environment, and establishes the values and standards of conduct consistent with the culture. Because of the different countries or regions, different race or nation, environment, different levels of economic development, their cultural traditions and values vary significantly, and can produce their own unique cultural system and the national characters. Thus, they have their own characteristics in the selection of the types of tourism products, purchase and consumption methods.
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3.0 The travel behaviors of Japanese tourists in Australia
The travel motivations of Japanese tourists often include sightseeing, tour and opening the mind. Japanese tourists like to travel with the team, which attributed the collectivism of Japanese culture (Kim, 2005). Although the travel with the team is still the main form of travel of Japanese tourists, the proportion of the tourists of the team is constantly reducing and the proportion of self-help tourists is increasing. The main purpose of the travel with the team is to leisure and tourism, and business travel has a certain proportion. In the self-tour market, tourists travel to visit relatives and friends. And business travel and honeymoon travel is also increasing (Kim, 2005).
Japanese focus on their inner feelings in tourism concept. They often give a cautious, conservative and restrained impression, so they have the fewer exchange with the residents in the tourist destinations. They tend to collective action, as is mainly related to the Japanese value. Japanese tourists tend to choose a mature tourist destination. Japanese tourists like to visit the big cities and famous attractions, including city tour, national parks, theme parks and other man-made landscape (Kozak, 2002). In tourism decision-making, the Japanese tourists are likely to be impact of other individuals of the groups.
The appropriate tourism is promoted by Japanese in tourism Behaviors. They are against too much publicity and adventure. They have a persistent identity for the homeland. And they are not easy to integrate into a foreign land community. Their dress, behaviors, lifestyle, and even ideology comply with the “collective” criteria (Mackay, 2000). Japanese tourists seek consistency of action. They are courtesy and humility, who are enthusiastic photographers. Japanese tourists are more interested in the cultural attractions. They are not interest in pursuing the novelty and the exploring tourism. They are relatively passive in the tourism process. Avoiding risk and uncertainty is Japanese philosophy of living in their Values. Although the most visitors are strong interest in the state sites, national parks and urban tourism, the tourists who are willing to participate in participatory activities (such as beach sports) and eco-tourists began to increase.
Japanese outbound tourism has the feature of shape. Under normal circumstances, travel agencies have developed detailed plans in advance. The tourism seminars will be held prior to departure. They set out early and return late every day. Many people are willing to participate in this group travel, and they thought that get something. They can hold the detailed and elaborate travel plans so that they feel at ease and have the guarantee to get high-quality service. Japanese tourists pursue bookishness when they go out. There are maps, travel guides and other reference books in all major bookstores in Japan, and there is a wide range of excellent and all-inclusive printing. And whatever Japanese make, they have to seek the help of these tools.
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Japanese like perfectionism, which means everything must be perfect and best effort. Japanese like to repast in the restaurant with Japanese style in the diet. Japanese also like to buy souvenirs, and they think this is the method to retain memories. In addition, Japanese have very strong environmental awareness, the awareness of role and the sense of fair. They pay attention to “wash” and “convenience” in travel. They are demanding in accommodation and bathing (Thyne, 2006).
4.0 The spiritual culture, values and customs which affect the travel behaviors of Japanese tourists
Japanese influenced by Confucianism pursue collectivism in the ideology and the thinking mode. This sense of community show collective action in the action. Each one as a member of the group makes great efforts in order to be not excluded from the group. They stressed the interdependence and mutual cooperation, seeking stability and quiet. Japanese have a strong collectivist culture and like team travel (Litvin, 2003). They prefer short-term vacation. In this cultural context, Japanese are easy to feel pain and danger if the individuals are out from the collective. Japanese tourists are with high risk Avoidance (Money, 2003). And the different degree of risk aversion will affect the decision-making behavior of tourists in all aspects of consumer behaviors of the tourists.
Japanese cultural identity and values are the fundamental factors of affecting their tourism consumer behaviors. These are the deep-seated internal cause for Japanese tourists arising travel motivation, selecting travel mode and preferring the travel products. The ultimate meaning of life of Japanese is to pursue the secularism and note this world, claiming that time is swift. Japanese go with the flow doctrine, and travel abroad is popular, which has become a way of life (Pisam, 2004). At the same time, Japanese are lack of resources. The intensive export-oriented economic development has created the national character of being good at maintaining the tradition and learning and creating and an open mind. This national character and hobby is the deep background of Japanese outbound tourism. The travel psychology is to integrate them with the nature, hoping the contacts with people in different geography, experiencing the exotic culture and enriching their spirit world through tourism.
Japanese national character is obvious different from the other nations, and the Japanese national character is the main factor of the impact of the touristsââ‚¬â„¢ behaviors. In general, Japanese are rigorous, demanding, and there is a strong national consciousness in Japan. Japan is a typical male-dominated society. Japanese have a higher desire for achievement, competition and material gain, and less concerned about the feelings of others (Pisam, 2004). Japanese have more stringent assessment of the quality of services as the members of the male-dominated. They require more comprehensive services and products, pursuing idealistic material and spiritual pleasure.
Japan is a country attaching great importance to etiquette, and they frequently present gifts. Many Japanese have formulated a gift list prior to travel departure or on the way, and they can purchase and distribute the gifts according to the list. The gift’s light friendship is heavy, as is the characteristics of their gifts conversation. They mainly maintain and strengthen the delicate relationship between people through gifts. This is their practice the maintenance of their own group consciousness. Therefore, the gifts are not expensive, but Japanese pay attention to local characteristics and memorable.
Cross-cultural differences will affect the travel experience of tourists. Because the expectations and the judging standards of the tourists from the different cultural backgrounds for the tourism service are different, even if they face the same tourist activities and services, their perception for the service quality and satisfaction may also have a greater difference. If Australian tourism companies do not screen the tourists, the tourism market segmentation and market strategy development will be impacted. In order to better understand and grasp the cultural differences and characteristics of Japanese tourists, the following recommendations are provided.
Australian tourism workers should identify the cultural differences between Japan and Australia, looking for cultural identity. The managers should organize the staff to discuss the marrow of Japanese culture and its impact on the travel decision-making behaviors of Japanese tourists through academic research and discussion format. They should understand the values, living habits, customs and other knowledge of Japanese tourists, distinguish and understand of the cultural differences between Japan and Australia, taking the targeted measures. Tourism workers should achieve the cross-cultural cognition from the cross-cultural understanding, and be good at cultural empathy and searching for cultural identity in the cultural marginal fields because the essence of the solution of the cultural conflicts is cultural identity (Yu, 2006).
Australian tourism workers should dim different culture and avoid sensitive culture. They should dim the subject culture which is most likely to lead to the cultural conflicts between Japanese culture and Australian culture, saving the closer or flat part of the two kind of culture. Even if the cultural differences occur in the cultural marginal field, these can easily be resolved through communication between the two sides. When there are huge differences between Australian culture and Japanese culture in this culture of marginal fields, the policy of circumvention must be taken on the major differences so that the cultural conflicts are avoided in these sensitive areas (Yu, 2006). Australian tourism workers should establish a cultural common concept and improve the ability of the cultural identification and adaptation. Verbal communication is one of the most effective ways to improve the ability of adapting to the different culture. Language training not only makes the trainees to acquire the knowledge of language, but also familiarize them with the unique expression and communication methods of Japanese culture, such as gestures, symbols, manners and customs. In this way, the cultural friction in the cultural marginal fields is reduced, Australian cultural exchange capacity is enhanced, and a good reputation will be established in the international tourism market (Yu, 2006). Australian tourism planners should pay attention to the consumer demand and psychological needs of Japanese tourists, correctly understand and treat Japanese cultural values, develop the marketing strategy of targeted culture, and use various promotional tools to attract Japanese tourists from the different cultural backgrounds. For example, the travel agencies provide the food of Japanese style and high quality accommodation and washing facilities, and provide as much thoughtful and meticulous service as possible (Yu, 2006). But the cross-cultural tour management does not mean giving up the Australian culture. Many Japanese tourists are attracted by the uniqueness of Australian culture which is different from their native culture. The travel planners find the best fit point between Australian culture and international multi-culture from the cross-cultural perspective, both maintaining the local cultural characteristics and promoting the international development of Australian tourism.
In conclusion, cultural differences are not only the most attractive resources to attract Japanese visitors, but also the root causes of different performance of the Japanese tourists in their consumer behaviors. Therefore, maintaining this difference and highlighting Australian cultural characteristics is of great significance for the development of international tourism in Australia. Tourism enterprises should timely adjust the development strategy, develop marketable tourism products and formulate new management methods and strategies for the different needs of Japanese tourists in order to ensure healthy and rapid development of Australian tourism.
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